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8. plenary session of the Estonian Communist Party

8. plenary session of the Estonian Communist Party: ECP criticized the work of current leadership and accused them of bourgeois nationalism; Stalinist repressions against the leadership of Estonian SSR and cultural elite

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16 points

16 points: The students formed their demands in 16 points among which the most important were: free elections, multi-party democratic system and independence from the Soviet Union.

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16 judges ("Els Setze Jutges")

16 judges ("Els Setze Jutges"): They were in charge of promoting the movement of the new song and normalize and defend the use of Catalan singer contemporary songs in this language. "Els Setze Jutges" was a group of Catalan singers in Catalan language founded in 1961 by Miquel Porter i Moix, Remei Margarit and Josep Maria Espinàs. Its name comes from the tongue-twister "sixteen judges of a court eat the liver of a Hangman". These started welcoming new players until they reached the number which gave them the name. They began singing their own songs and cover versions of songs by French singers, especially Georges Brassens, one of the greatest exponents of the protest song. Later the circle was expanded with new singers like: Francesc Pi de la Serra, Guillermina Motta, Margarit, Remedy Maria del Carme Girau, Martí Llauradó, Maria Amèlia Pedrerol, Joan Ramon Bonet, ,Maria del Mar Bonet, Lluís Llach… Raimon, the singer, was also linked to the group during the early years of his career. Els Setze Jutges began to dissolve at the end of the dictatorship, in 1968, and with the progressive professionalization of some of its members, some of whom achieved a prominent reputation over time.

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1980's spanish crisis

1980's spanish crisis:Because of it, the request of being part of EEC was refused again, for eight years more. The Spanish economic structure clashed with European interests and there was internal problems in the country as a result of the crisis.

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2013 enlargement of the European Union

2013 enlargement of the European Union: Saw, Croatia join the European Union as their 28th member state on 1 July 2013. Croatia is the second former Yugoslav republic to join the European Union after a decade-long negotiation process. The country applied for EU membership in 2003, and the European Commission recommended making it an official candidate in early 2004. Candidate country status was granted to Croatia by the European Council in mid-2004. The entry negotiations, while originally set for March 2005, began in October that year together with the screening process.

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24 February 1989

24 February 1989:On 24 February 1989, at the initiative of the leaders of the Estonian SSR, the national tricolor was raised at the traditional seat of power in Tallinn, the Pikk Hermann tower. Interfront greeted the move with a strike threat.

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18 March 1990

18 March 1990:Elections to the Supreme Soviet were held in the Estonian SSR on 18 March 1990, the first free parliamentary election in Estonia since the 1930s. A total of 105 deputies were elected, of which four were from military districts. Altogether 392 candidates competed for seats in the Soviet. The opposition pro-independence Popular Front won the plurality of the seats.

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15 May 1990

15 May 1990: On 15 May 1990, Moscow-minded demonstrators attempted to seize Toompea castle, but were rebuffed by opposition from the people, who hastened to the aid of the Supreme Council.

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1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt

The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Putsch or August Coup was a coup d'état attempt by a group of members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev. The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) who were opposed to Gorbachev's reform program and the new union treaty that he had negotiated which decentralised much of the central government's power to the republics.

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A mass meeting in Hirvepark organized by MRP-AEG

A mass meeting in Hirvepark organized by MRP-AEG: The group organized a mass meeting in Hirvepark in Tallinn the august 1987, where people demanded that the secret protocol of the 1939 pact be made public. The meeting was not forcefully disbanded, as would have happened before, which showed that civil rights had expanded and the regime had softened – the authorities even granted permission to hold the demonstration. View in timeline...

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Adolfo Suarez

Adolfo Suarez:When Franco's regime finished, he led the country and made the political transitions to democracy. He requested again the incorporation of Spain on July 26th 1977. But son economic problems appeared.

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A Self-Managing Estonia

A Self-Managing Estonia: In September 1987, the Edasi newspaper published a proposal by Popular Front of Estonia, Siim Kallas, Tiit Made and Mikk Titma calling for Estonia to make the transition to autonomy. Initially geared toward economic independence, then toward a certain amount of political autonomy, the project,Isemajandav Eesti (A Self-Managing Estonia) became known according to its Estonian acronym, IME, which means "miracle".

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Agricultural cooperatives

Agricultural cooperatives: It is one form of communal farming during communism. The agricultural production is run as a joint enterprise led by the state.

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Algirdas Kaušpėdas

Algirdas Kaušpėdas: Lithuanian rock musician, the leader of Lithuanian rock group Antis, an architect and one of the Sąjūdis initiators.

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Air-raid shelter (Portbou)

Air-raid shelter (Portbou): During the retreat, Portbou became one of the most used frontier points to cross over into France. It is estimated that between 90.000 and 100,000 people crossed the frontier through the Portbou-Cerbére Pass. When World War II broke out, Portbou, with its international railway station, became one of the main escape routes for the fugitives of Nazism among whom worthy of note was the German Philosopher, Walter Benjamin.

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Air-raid shelter (Roses)

Air-raid shelter (Roses): The Civil War in Roses came to a climax with the attack on the cruise ship "Canarias "on 30th October, 1936, which was the first bombing in the Girona region. Roses was also attacked by the Italian Air Force in the summer of 1937, twice in 1938. During the retreat, in Roses, which was a war naval/ base, the Delegation of the Under Secretary of State for the Navy and Justice of the Central Government of the Republic established itself there.

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Alija Izetbegović

Alija Izetbegović: First President of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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„Altar of the homeland“

„Altar of the homeland“: monument dedicated to the fallen Croatian soldiers in the Croatian War of Independence

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Arnold Rüütel

Arnold Rüütel Served as the last Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR from April 8, 1983 to March 29, 1990, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR (from May 8, 1990: Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia) from March 29, 1990 to October 6, 1992 and was the third President of the Republic of Estonia from October 8, 2001 to October 9, 2006. He was the second President since Estonia regained independence in 1991. Rüütel also served as one of fifteen Deputy Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR

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Amnesty

Amnesty: A decision on that a group of people will not be punished or on that a group of prisoners will be allowed to go free.

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Anna Walentynowicz

Anna Walentynowicz: a free trade union activist, a co-founder and a prominent member of Solidarity Trade Union. In 1950 she was employed at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk as a welder. For participation in the illegal trade union she was fired in August 1980, five months before she was about to retire. That event ignited the strike in the shipyard, which soon gave way to a wave of strikes throughout Poland making it the largest strike ever. Her name became the slogan of the strike: "Bring Anna Walentynowicz back to work!" The Interfactory Strike Committee was transformed into Solidarity Trade Union. When it was registered shortly after the Gdansk Agreement, it had nearly ten million members, the world's largest union to date. Born in 1929, she died in a plane crash near Smolensk on 10th of April in 2010 along with Polish President Lech Kaczynski, his wife Maria Kaczynska and many other prominent Polish people. Anna Waletynowicz is now widely regarded as "mother of independent Poland".

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Andrzej Wajda

Andrzej Wajda has to his credit two trilogies, the first is 'A Generation', 'Kanał', 'Ashes and Diamonds' (1955-1958) and the second is 'Man of Marble', 'Man of Iron' and 'Man of Hope ' (1976-2013). His full-length debut was 'A Generation ' - the film based on Bohdan Czeszka's novel. This movie was produced in 1954 and the opening night took place one year later. By this trilogy Andrzej Wajda was trying to sum up the times of The II World War and thereby change the way of Polish peoples' thinking. 'Man of Marble ' was a film that showed the hard times of Soviet Union. However, 'Man of Iron' presented a new myth of solidarity and the symbol of Polish union against the communism. 'Walesa. 'Man of Hope' is the last of the triptych. The film reminds of Wajda's contribution to Solidarnosc and political opposition. Walesa's victory is perceived as a victory of the whole fighting nation. Andrzej Wajda through his films tried to present the complicated history after The II World War and the process of the development of Europe. The director was awarded many times for his contribution to the cinematography. What is more, in 2000 Wajda received an honorary Oscar from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

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Andrei Zhdanov

Andrei Zhdanov: According to Moscow's plans, the change of power in newly occupied countries had to be carried out very smoothly, to avoid local resistance and international attention. In the early morning of June 19, Andrei Zhdanin (see image), a representative of Stalin, came to Tallinn, and met president Konstantin Päts around noon of the same day. They discussed the question of a new head of the government. Zhdanov appointed the new government by June 20, consisting mainly of friends and acquaintances of Vares and Andresen.

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"Antis"

"Antis": Lithuanian postmodernist rock band. The name is the Lithuanian word for "duck" and is also slang for a false mass media sensation.

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Antisemitism

Antisemitism: A sort of rassism, the hate and conviction of Jewish people.

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Anti-Semitic campaign in 1968-72

Anti-Semitic campaign in 1968-72: A Polish Communist Party weekly today called the official anti-Semitic campaign of 1968, which drove as many as 20,000 Jews from the country, infamous and an embarrassment to Poland. View in timeline...

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Anti-Soviet elements

Anti-Soviet elements: people and organizations which resisted against USSR occupation

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Ants Kaljurand

Ants Kaljurand: Ants Kaljurand AKA "Ants the Terrible" (October 20, 1917 Tallinn - March 13, 1951) was an Estonian Second World War freedom fighter for the "Forest Brothers."

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Asylum Gomis garden (Agullana)

Asylum Gomis garden (Agullana): During the retreat of the republican forces, Agullana was the seat of the different institutions of the Republican Government like the Central General Staff, the Ministry of State, the Treasury and the Ministry of Agriculture. It also housed the Presidency of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the Ministry of Culture, the refugee Basque Government and a Delegation from the Soviet Embassy.

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Atentat

Atentat: Murder or attempted murder of celebrities, usually one that has political, economic, military or cultural importance in a country; often there are also the assassination of the military, police or intelligence forces of some countries conducted against the leading representatives of the dissident terrorist organization; So in the time period from 1946th to 1990th UDBA killed 69 Croatian dissidents in exile and another eight were missing.

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Auteur theory

Auteur theory:In film criticism, this theory holds that a director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, s if they were the primary "auteur".

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Attack to the Stasi headquarter

Attack to the Stasi headquarter: This attack happened on the 15th January 1990. About 100,000 demonstrators met in front of the headquarter of the Ministry of National Security. They broke into the headquarter and destroyed it.

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August events in Poland

August events in Poland: AUGUST 1980 – GDANSK AND THE WHOLE COUNTRY The protests started in major factories in Silesia in the south-west of Poland and on the coast of the Baltic Sea in the north. The leader of the strike in Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk was Lech Walesa, an electrician. Unlike before, this time the negotiations with the pro-communist Polish government were taking place all the time and no fights emerged. As a result, a Polish trade union federation called Solidarity was founded under the leadership of Lech Walesa. In the 1980s Solidarity became the first independent labour union in a soviet-bloc country. Solidarity movement gave rise to a broad, non-violent, anti-communist social activity all over the country and in contributed greatly to the fall of communism in 1989 in Poland. View in timeline...

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August Sabbe

August Sabbe: August Sabbe (September 1, 1909 – September 27 or 28, 1978) was one of the last surviving Estonian members of the Forest Brother, a group of citizens of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania who resisted and fought against the Soviet occupation of their three nations. Sabbe hid in the forests of Estonia, living off of the land like other Forest Brothers. In 1978, at the age of 69, Sabbe was found near his birthplace of Paidra, Lasva Parish in southeastern Estonia by two KGB agents posing as fishermen. The Forest Brothres code of conduct and the quickness of Sabbe's reaction suggest that Sabbe was prepared not to be taken alive.

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"Autumn" ("Osen")

Autumn: October 2-3, 1951 more than 16 thousand people (about 5.3 thousand children among them) were deported from Lithuania to the Krasnoyarsk area. View in timline...

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ÁVH

ÁVH: The secret police of the Hungarian communist party, this organization used force against the nation, they had got files on everyone.View in timeline...

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"Azra"

"Azra" a rock band from Zagreb that was popular across Yugoslavia in the 1980s. Azra was formed in 1977 by its frontman Branimir "Johnny" Štulić. They are considered to be one of the most influential bands from the former Yugoslav new wave rock era and the Yugoslav Rock scene in general.

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Balys Sruoga

Balys Sruogaa writer of wide and colourful gift: a poet, a prose writer, a dramatist, a theatre critic, a researcher of literature and folklore.

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Banyuls Pass (Rabóss Banyuls)

Banyuls Pass (Rabóss Banyuls): Rabós was one of The Alt Ampurdanese municipalities which many republicans went through on their way into exile. The refugees who went through Rabós were mainly making their way to the frontier Pass in Banyuls, either through Espolla or through San Quirze de Colera.

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Beginning of the occupation

Beginning of the occupation: June 5, 1940 Total 132,000 Lithuanians were deported to remote areas of the USSR: Siberia, the Arctic Circle zone and Central Asia.View in timeline...

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Beginning of Soviet occupation

Beginning of Soviet occupation: June 17, 1940 35 000 Soviet troops went into Estonia and supported by troops communists came in power View in timeline...

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Béla Kun

Béla Kun:He was a Hungarian revolutionary who led the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.

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Belitres Pass (Portbou)

Belitres Pass (Portbou): The major part of the thousands of refugees coming from Figueres and Llançà and crossing the border in Portbou, went through the Belitres Pass. Many of those who went into exile were concentrated in camps put up on the Rosselló beaches at Argelers, Sant Cebrià and Bacarés).

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Blago Zadro

Blago Zadro: Commander of the northern part of Croatian defense forces in Vukovar (Croatia) during the Croatian War of Independence. He was killed in an attack by Serb forces in the town of Borovo Naselje.

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Bourgeois nationalism

Bourgeois nationalism: The most frequent accusation used in justification of reprisals against politicians and cultural people in Estonia in the second half of the 1940s and early 1950s. A term from Marxist phraseology. It refers to the alleged practice by the ruling classes of deliberately dividing people by nationality, race, ethnicity, or religion, so as to distract them from possible class warfare. It is seen as a divide and conquer strategy used by the ruling classes to prevent the working class from uniting against them (hence the Marxist slogan,Workers of all countries, unite!).

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Bronius Krivickas

Bronius Krivickasa poet and partisan. He was killed in 1952.

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Budapest in ruins

Budapest in ruins: 24th-26th October, 1956 A general strike was called by workers. The communist symbols were torn out of the Hungarian flag View in timeline...

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Bušić, Bruno

Bušić, Bruno:Croatian patriot, writer and political leader of Croatian emigration; the most famous victim of assassination by UDBA agents; assassinated in Paris in 1978. View in timeline...

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Butyrka prison

Butyrka prison: A central transit prison in Tsarist Russia, located in Moscow

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C

Cantallops

Cantallops: During the retreat, part of the Republican Army and many civilians from all over Spain crossed the mountains in Cantallops and Requesens in order to reach France when the frontier at Le Perthus came to a standstill. The paths chosen, on many occasions, were through the l'Auleda Pass and the Forcat Pass.

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Can Descalç (Darnius)

Can Descalç (Darnius): Can Descalç Country House gave refuge to a considerable number of the members of the Generalítat de Catalunya Government and part of Catalunya's art treasure. Towards the end of the year 1938, the Generalitat Government foresaw the defeat of the Republican Army and decided to safeguard its art collection from the Franco bombings on Barcelona.

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Cal Sot (Darnius)

Cal Sot (Darnius): During the retreat several delegations of the Spanish and Catalan Governments were set up in Darnius. There was a delegation from the Central Government headed by the son of Juan Negrin at the ancestral home, Cal Sot, and at the Can Palau Ancestral Home there was a garrison of frontier police and a representation of the Generalitat was housed in the Can Descalç Country House.

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Caracremada (burnt-face)

Caracremada (burnt-face): nick name of Ramon Vila, a Spanish anarchist who was known as burnt-face because he was caught by a thunder, which caused scars in his face

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Carrero Blanco

Carrero Blanco: Spanish president of the Government in 1973 who was designed Franco's successor and was assassinated in 1973.

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Catholic Basilica

Catholic Basilica: a religious building. El Valle de los Caídos was declared a Catholic basilica by Pope John XXII in 1960 View in timeline...

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Cease-fire

Cease-fire: When the acts of war temporarily or finally come to end.

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Censorship

Censorship: Censorship in People's Republic of Poland – the control of the authorities of the PRP over information (the press, scientific and cultural publications) meant for distribution. Censorship in PRP lasted from 1944 to 1990. View in timeline...

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Censorship during Franco's regime

Censorship during Franco's regime:Censorship is the «intervention that censor content or in the form of a work practice according to ideological, moral or political affairs». In a broad sense is considered as suppression of communication material that may be considered offensive, harmful, inconvenient or unnecessary for the Government or the media as determined by a censor.

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Censorship in the GDR

Censorship in the GDR: Censorship in People’s Republic of Poland – the control of the authorities of the PRP over information (the press, scientific and cultural publications) meant for distribution. Censorship in PRP lasted from 1944 to 1990.View in timeline...

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CNT

CNT: Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour), is a confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions affiliated with the International Workers Association

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Collaborator

Collaborator: someone who collaborates with an enemy occupying force collaborationist, quisling, (traitor, treasonist - someone who betrays his country by committing treason)

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Collective farm

Collective farm: A large farm, where all people from whole village worked: cultivated ground, breed farm animals, planted grains. Under Lithuanian conditions, where agriculture was based on grain production and animal breeding, farms of up to 12.5 acres could not operate efficiently. Besides, new settlers and small-holders were in need of seeds, animals, implements, fertilizers, etc.

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Collectivisation

Collectivisation: The government wanted to rule all possessions in Hungary, for example fields.

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Collectivization

Collectivization: On July 22, 1940, just over a month after soviet take-over of Lithuania, the so-called People's Diet promulgated a proclamation, nationalizing all land, farms and people's farm animals to collective farms.

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Command economy

Command economy : Communist propaganda in the Soviet Union was extensively based on the Marxism-Leninism ideology to promote the Communist Party line. An important goal of Communist propaganda was to create a new man. Schools and the Communist youth organizations, like Soviet pioneers and Komsomol, served to remove children from the "petit-bourgeois" family and indoctrinate the next generation into the collective way of life.

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Communist propaganda

Communist propaganda: Communist propaganda in the Soviet Union was extensively based on the Marxism-Leninism ideology to promote the Communist Party line. An important goal of Communist propaganda was to create a new man. Schools and the Communist youth organizations, like Soviet pioneers and Komsomol, served to remove children from the "petit-bourgeois" family and indoctrinate the next generation into the collective way of life.

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Communist symbols

Communist symbols: For example the sickle, hammer, red star which were in the national flag and on the roofs of the buildings.

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Control-filtration camp

Control-filtration camp: Soviet prison camp during and after World War II for Soviet citizens who had served in the enemy armed forces and who had been in their territory.

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Council garden (Espolla)

Council garden (Espolla): During the Civil War, Espolla became a place for crossing over into exile. A large number of the Pyrenees Mountain Crossings were used all through the war and for many years after by all kinds of undocumented people and clandestine refugees, including those fleeing from the Catalan Republic, Franco's Spain, the Vichy Regime or members of the anti Franco guerrilla band (Maquis).

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Creation of Helsinki Group

Creation of Helsinki Group: Lithuanian Helsinki Group (support the implementation of the Helsinki Accords Lithuanian social group) - Lithuanian dissidents secret organization, which operated from 1975 to 1983 m. View in timeline...

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Croatian spring

Croatian spring: a cultural and political movement from the early 1970s that called for rights for Croatia(then part of Yugoslavia); also called masovni pokret or MASPOK, for "mass movement", by the opposition

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Cult of Personality

Cult of Personality: When an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized, heroic and good-like public image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise

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Croatian Political Emigration

Croatian Political Emigration: groups of Croats who were forced to leave Croatia in the period between the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 and the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s; they advocated for an independent Croatian country from abroad and by various means they organized a resistance to the Yugoslav state; there was a mass emigration after the Croatian Spring.

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Copenhagen Criteria

Copenhagen Criteria:It was declared by the Copenhagem Summit in 1993. It had to be fulfilled by the new democracies of Eastern- and Central-Europe.

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Congress of Estonia

Congress of Estonia: The Congress of Estonia was an innovative grassroots parliament established in Estonia as a part of the process of regaining of independence from theSoviet Union. It also challenged the power and authority of the pre-existing quasi-parliament in the country, called the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR, which had been imposed on Estonia after Moscow's illegal annexation in 1940. The Congress of Estonia declared that it represented the highest authority on questions of Estonian statehood and citizenship, deriving this authority from the consent and initiative of the citizens of Estonia. The aim of the Congress was to restore Estonian independence based on the principle of legal continuity, with the pre-1940 republic of Estonia, which had been established in 1918, as the foundation.

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Croatian Accession Treaty

Croatian Accession Treaty:is an agreement between the member states of the European Union and Croatia concerning Croatia's accession to the EU. It was signed on 9 December 2011 in Brussels by the heads of state or government of the 27 member states and by the President of Croatia, Ivo Josipović, and Croatia's then Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor. The Treaty entered into force on 1 July 2013, making Croatia the 28th Member state of the European Union.

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Cursed soldiers

Cursed soldiers: This term was created in 1993. It was used for the first time in the title of the exhibition "Cursed soldiers - anti-communist underground forces after 1944” organized by the Republicans League at the Warsaw University. They were Polish independent soldiers and members of underground anti-communist forces. They fought with the communist regime, in order to bring back freedom and independence for Poland. View in timeline...

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Č

Čekuolis Algimantas Jurgis

Čekuolis Algimantas Jurgis : An editor of a newspaper Gimtasis kraštas, a lecturer of Institute of International Relations and Political Science at Vilnius University and Journalistic Institute, a signatory of the March 11 Act.

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D

David - star

David - star (yellow star): Every jewish people wore this symbol from 1941 to 1945. It was adistinguishing mark.

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Dayton

Dayton: a city in the U.S. state of Ohio where the Dayton Agreement, a peace accord between the parties to the hostilities of the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina was negotiated and by which a political division of Bosnia was agreed upon View in timeline...

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Death march

Death march: - Workers or deporters walked a long trip during which a lot of people died.

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December events in Pomerania

December events in Pomerania: DECEMBER 1970 – POMERANIA On Wednesday the 16th December 1970 there was a general strike in the north of Poland, near the coast of the Baltic Sea. The protest turned really violent, its participants were brutally bitten by the riot police. The communist authorities got worried about the chaos in the city. On the 17th December in the morning, when the workers were commuting to the Gdynia Shipyard, riots broke out again in a train station near the shipyard. Soon after that, a march of protestants was formed in the centre of Gdynia. The militia forces intervened and the fights started. The march dispersed but it quickly gathered again. That time, they were carrying the body of a dead worker – 18-year-old Zbyszek Godlewski on a door. Thousands of protestants joined the march and they continued fighting with the police and other armed troops. The army used its full power and the riots ended with many casualties – 16 people dead and many injured View in timeline...

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Deportation

Deportation: is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. Today the expulsion of foreign nationals is usually called deportation, whereas the expulsion of nationals is called banishment, exile, or penal transportation

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Deportations

Deportations: is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. Today the expulsion of foreign nationals is usually called deportation, whereas the expulsion of nationals is called banishment, exile, or penal transportation.

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Deportation of March 1949

Deportation of March 1949: Deportation carried out by the Soviet authorities from 25 to 29 March 1949, when over 20, 000 people were forcefully taken from Estonia to Siberia.

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Democratic memorial

Democratic memorial: The Spanish Civil War broke out in July 1936, because of a coup d'état led by a part of the Army with the support of the most reactionary sectors of Spanish Society. The rebel's objective was to overthrow the constitutional order of the Second Republic. It is estimated that between 600.000 and 700.000 lives were lost in this war (including those on the front and in the repression carried out by the rearguards). The Republican defeat at the beginning of 1939 led to between 470.000 and 480.000 people embarking on the road into exile. A considerable number of these displaced persons, after much suffering and hardship, finally settled in France and in several South American countries.

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Demonstation after the fall of the Berlin Wall

Demonstation after the fall of the Berlin Wall: 15th January 1990: Demonstrators assemble at the Stasi houses and the headquarter of the ministry of national security and vandalize them View in timeline...

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Demonstrations againest voting corruption

Demonstrations againest voting corruption: These demonstrations happened between the 7th May and the 7th October 1989. In this period the people began to protest againest the corruption of the votings in the GDR, e.g. against the official voting result of 98.85 percent for the government. Although many demonstrators got arrested the prostests didn't stop and since the 7th June there were weekly demonstrations against voting corruptions in East Berlin. So these demonstrations were also a great step to the unity of Germany.

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Deportation collaborators with Nazy German

Deportation collaborators with Nazy German: 18 families (51 persons) were transferred to Tyumen Oblast in October (51 persons), 37 families (87 persons) in November and other 37 families (91 persons) in December as "Traitor of Motherland family members".Also in 1944 at least 30,000 were mobilized for labour service in other parts of the Soviet Union. In August 1945, 407 persons, most of them of German descent, were transferred from Estonia to Perm Oblast. View in timeline...

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Deportation of elite

Deportation of elite: July 1940 Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces Johan Laidoner and President Konstantin Päts were arrested and deported to Soviet Union, also the country political and military leadership was deported almost entirely, including 10 of 11 ministers and 68 of 120 members of parliament. About picture: Soviet Law regarded Estonian President Konstantin Päts to be only a felon, but also a mentally ill person. He was isolated from society and placed into a special NKVD-guarded hospital colloquially called psikhushka by the Russians. View in timeline...

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Deportation (1941)

Deportation (1941): On June 14 1941 and the following two days, 9,254–10,861 people, mostly urban residents, of them over 5,000 women and over 2,500 children under 16, 439 Jews (more than 10% of the Estonian Jewish population) were deported, mostly to Kirov Oblast, Novosibirsk Oblast or prisons. Three hundred were shot. Only 4,331 persons have ever returned to Estonia.View in timeline...

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Deportation of 1949

Deportation of 1949: During the collectivization period in the Baltic republics, on January 29, 1949, the Council of Ministers issued top secret decree No. 390–138ss,which obligated the Ministry for State Security(MGB) to exile the kulaks and the people's enemies from the three Baltic Republics forever. 20,722 (7,500 families, over 2.5 percent of the Estonian population, half of them women, over 6,000 children under the age of 16, and 4,300 men) were sent to Siberia during three days (25.-27. of March) About picyure: A drawing made by Hilda Orn, who was a teenager when she was deported with her family. Her father an engineer died that winter. She, her sister and her mother were not allowed to leave the 'settlement' until 1956.View in timeline...

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Dictatorship

Dictatorship: A dictatorship is a political system where the main source of state power (the power of government) isn’t the popular will. Its political system is violent, and its leader is called 'dictator'.

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Dissident

Dissident: A person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution. When dissidents unite for a common cause they often effect a dissidentmovement.

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Dissident

Dissident: Latin dissid ns, dissident-, present participle of dissid re, to disagree : dis-, apart; refers to a person who actively challenges (disagrees, criticizes) an established doctrine, policy, or institution; Croatian dissidents were persecuted by the UDBA, tortured, molested, captured on the Goli otok and murdered;

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Društvo hrvatskih književnika

The Croatian Writers' Association was founded on April 22nd 1900 to improve and enhance the Croatian written word and to safeguard and promote the reputation of being a writer; it played a significant role during the Croatian Spring among other things rejecting the Novi Sad Agreement about the Serbo-Croatian language in 1954.

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E

ECP (Estonian Communist Party)

ECP (Estonian Communist Party): a person who leaves one place or country, especially a native country, to settle in another because of war, natural disaster or similar conditions; it is estimated that around 1 million emigrants left Bosnia and Herzegovina View in timeline...

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Eglė Bučelytė

Eglė Bučelytė: Famous Lithuanian journalist. She began working for the Lithuanian Radio and Television in 1986. Eglė Bučelytė is awarded of January 13th commemorative medal.

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Emergence of the Workers' Defence Committee

Emergence of the Workers' Defence Committee: The foundation of KOR (the Workers' Defence Committee), a Polish opposition formation, was preceded by an unorganized assistance and help for the repressed people. That unstructured support was quite successful, but to increase the efficiency of their actions, KOR founders decided to set up a formal organization. In September 1976, Antoni Macierewicz and Piotr Naimski with the support of the Polish intelligence and Wojciech Onyszkiewicz compiled the draft version of the founding document of KOR. On the 22nd of September 1976, 14 signatories announced the so called 'Appeal to the Nation'. It stated that in order to repulse the repressions in Radom, Ursus and other cities, solidarity and mutual help are necessary. KOR's main objectivities were financial help, legal assistance and medical help for the repressed people. They also demanded amnesties for the unlawfully arrested and giving jobs back to the repressed.

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Estonian citizens committees movement

Estonian citizens committees movement: In February 1989, people united around the Estonian National Independence Party and the Heritage Society started the movement of Estonian citizens' committees. The main aim was to restore the Republic of Estonia on the basis of legal continuity. In 1990, the Estonian citizens who were registered by the committees elected the Estonian Congress. On 11 March 1990, the Congress approved a manifesto that announced the wish of the Estonian people to restore the Republic of Estonia on the basis of legal continuity and the Tartu Peace Treaty (1920).

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Emigrant

Emigrant: a person who leaves one place or country, especially a native country, to settle in another because of war, natural disaster or similar conditions; it is estimated that around 1 million emigrants left Bosnia and Herzegovina View in timeline...

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Emigration

Emigration: It is the act of leaving one's country or region to settle down in another country.

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Estonian Citizens' Committees

Estonian Citizens' Committees: Estonian Citizens' Committees (Estonian: Eesti Kodanike Komiteed) was a nonpartisan political movement in Estonia, founded in 1989–1990, which had as its purpose the creation of power structures in order to restore the Republic of Estonia on the basis of continuity by registration of citizens of the Republic of Estonia, carrying out the elections of the Congress of Estonia, and convening the Congress of Estonia as a legislative body representing the citizens.

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Estonian Sovereignty Declaration

Estonian Sovereignty Declaration: The Estonian Sovereignty Declaration ,fully: Declaration on the Sovereignty of the Estonian SSR (Deklaratsioon Eesti NSV suveräänsusest) was issued on November 16, 1988 during the Singing Revolution in Estonia. The declaration asserted Estonia's sovereignty and the supremacy of the Estonian laws over the laws of the Soviet Union.Estonia's parliament also laid claim to the republic's natural resources: land, inland waters, forests, mineral deposits and to the means of industrial production, agriculture, construction, state banks, transportation, municipal services, etc. in the territory of Estonia's borders. November 16 is now celebrated annually as the "Day of Declaration of Sovereignty".

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EAGGF

EAGGF:The European Agricultural Guarantee Fund consumes a large part of the general budget of the European Union. It finances direct payments to farmers under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and measures to regulate agricultural markets such as intervention and export refunds. EAGGF have maintained financed Spanish agriculture and livestock.

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European Community

European Community:The European Communities (sometimes referred to as the European Community or EC) were three international organisations that were governed by the same set of institutions. In 1993 the European Communities were incorporated into the European Union.

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European Union

European Union:is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are primarily located in Europe. The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member states. Institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, the Court of Auditors, and the European Parliament. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens.

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Eurozone

Eurozone:This is an economic and monetary union of 18 European Union member states. Their common currency is the Euro.

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End of Partisan war

End of Partisan war: Jonas Žemaitis was one of the leaders of armed resistance against the Soviet occupation in Lithuania and acknowledged as the Head of State of contemporary occupied Lithuania After his death ended organized partisan resistance. View in timeline...

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Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing: the process or policy of eliminating unwanted ethnic or religious groups by deportation, forcible displacement, mass murder, or by threats of such acts View in timeline...

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Erich Honecker

Erich Honecker: East Germany's leader(1971.-1989). After the Nazis came to power, he has organized illegal activities by young communists.

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Estonian National Independence Party (ERSP)

Estonian National Independence Party (ERSP): The first non-communist political party in Soviet Estonia, essentially the first party in newly independent Estonia. At the first parliamentary elections of the newly independent (1991) Republic of Estonia in 1992, ERSP got 10 seats and joined the government coalition. In December 1995 ERSP joined the Pro Patria party, and together they formed the Pro Patria Union.

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Estonian Song

Estonian Song: The summer of 1988 culminated in a huge event organized by Popular Front at the Song Festival Grounds, "Estonian Song", where attendance was estimated at as much as 300,000. Here, for the first time, the head of the Heritage Preservation Society Trivimi Velliste called publicly for the restoration of Estonia’s independence.

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ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna; ‘Country & Freedom’)

ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna; ‘Country & Freedom’): Spanish terrorist group who vindicates the freedom of the Basque Country (North of Spain) and committed a lot of terrorist acts. Their members killed more tan 858 people during different decades from 1950 to 2000.

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Exile government

Exile government: The Estonian Government in Exile refers to the formally declared governmental authority of the Republic of Estonia in exile, existing from 1953 until the reestablishment of Estonian sovereignty over Estonian territory in 1992. It traced its legitimacy through constitutional succession to the last Estonian government in power prior to the Soviet invasion of 1940.

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Expulsion of students

Expulsion of students: After the manifestations in March 68 communist officials arrested more than 2,700 people, including 359 students. Many students were expelled from university, but some protested. That did not prevent ZOMO (the riot police) from brutal pacification. In a few days the protest spread to other Polish cities. Not only students fought but also professors. Those who helped students were soon sacked from universities they worked in. View in timeline...

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F

FC Barcelona Foundation

FC Barcelona Foundation: is the entity through which FC Barcelona conveys its corporate social responsibility. Since its founding in 1994, the FC Barcelona Foundation has been an endless source of peoples participation in numerous social, cultural, and sporting activities that the Club has organised, and which reflect an advanced society that found in the Club and the Foundation the ideal vehicle to promote them.

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Finnish television

Finnish television: Finnish channels which could be watched in Tallinn and elsewhere in northern Estonia; Estonians tried to acquire information about Western culture and societies, as much and as directly as possible.

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„Flash“

„Flash“: a brief Croatian Army offensive against Serbian forces; a strategic victory for Croatia

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Fall of the Berlin wall

Fall of the Berlin wall:The Berlin Wall separated the eastern half from the western half of the city of Berlin from 1961 to 1989. The Berlin Wall was about 168km long and had only been built to prevent people from escaping from the eastern half of Berlin. After World War 2 had ended, Germany was divided into four zones, one zone for each of the main Allied countries: French, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union. After Germany split into West and East Germany in 1949, 2.6 million East Germans left to go to West Germany. In Berlin alone, 1.6 million people fled to the west. To stop this, on August 13, 1961, the Communist government of East Germany built a wall separating East and West Berlin. The wall was built to keep the country's people in. But the Soviets and East German government said it was to keep capitalism out. They maintained that West Germany refused to recognize East Germany as an independent country because they wanted to take over North-East Germany just like Hitler took over Poland. People still tried to escape even though the Berlin Wall was there. They used many methods to get around the guards and barbed wire on the Berlin Wall. Hungary opened its border and people from East Germany began moving to the west through Hungary. In October 1989, after many previous demonstrations, the turning point in the desperate struggle for democracy and reunion was finally achieved. In November 1989, the Central Commitee of East Germany decided to make it easier for East Germans to pass through the wall. A mistake by the press officer meant the border was opened several hours before it should have been. Millions of East German citizens celebrated the opening of the wall. Many collected souvenirswith chisels and some television stations filmed people hitting the wall with sledge hammers.

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First democratic elections in Poland

First democratic elections in Poland: The first democratic election in Poland after the fall of the communist rule took place on the 4th of June 1989. The election was only partly free as not all of the parliamentary seats were freely contested. Nevertheless, the election was a great victory for the Solidarity movement and allowed democratically chosen representatives to have an influence on the country's politics. Following the election, on the 24th of August 1989 the parliament appointed Tadeusz Mazowiecki from the Solidarity to the position of Prime Minister. Mazowiecki's cabinet was formed on the 12th of September. Under the leadership of Tadeusz Mazowiecki, the new government managed to introduce several important reforms which caused significant political and economic changes in the country.

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Foundation of the Solidarity Trade Union

Foundation of the Solidarity Trade Union: The Solidarity Trade Union was founded in 1980. In the summer of 1980 the whole Poland went on strike because workers were dissatisfied with the communist regime. The main events took place in the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk. The shipyard workers founded a strike committee whose leader became Lech Wałęsa. This committee developed a set of demands - economic and political. After a few days of tempestuous conversation and consultation with Moscow, the government capitulated. On the 31st of August 1980 under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa an agreement was signed between the strike and governmental committees at the Gdańsk Shipyard. After that the workers could form independent trade unions. In September a decision about forming one countrywide union was made. Over time this union became the Independent Self-governing Trade Union (NSZZ) "Solidarity". It was registered on the 10th of November 1980 by the Provincial Court in Warsaw.

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Felipe Gonzalez

Felipe Gonzalez:He was the third president of the Spanish democracy. During his government Spain became a full member of the EEC. Spain also joined NATO

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France

France:at the beginning scepticism, because of the shift of power in Europe; François Mauriac quote: "I love Germany so much, that I'm happy there are two of them."; memories about the second world war are still alive; doubts on reunification and possible military conflicts; German armed forces reduced to 370.000;

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Francisco Franco's request for EU

Francisco Franco's request for EU:He was a dictator who had Spain under a hard regime since 1939 until his death in 1975. During his regime, he requested for the admission of Spain in the European Economic Community (EEC) but he was refused because one of the essential part of becoming part in EEC was to have a democratic system. However he could sign trade agreements such as thethe elimination of Spanish tariffs.

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Flight from GDR

Flight from GDR: Reasons for fleeing: family in the West, spying neighbors, control by SED, economic disadvantages, limited freedom. Types of escape attempts: selfmade tunnels, hot air balloons or light aircraft, rebuilt cars, various rivers and seas (Baltic sea), escape through other countries.

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Foundation of the GDR

Foundation of the GDR: People realised the border and many of them escaped because of panic. The border consisted of barbed wire fence and some security men. First attempts to escape were: jumping of windows over the border, jumping over the barbed wire fence, swimming through a canal, driving through the border with a car. View in timeline...

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"Forest Brothers"

"Forest Brothers": were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged a guerrilla war againstSoviet rule during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the three Baltic states during, and after, World War II

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Forrest brothers

Forrest brothers: The term 'forest brothers' primarily describes the fighting tactics of Estonian partisans. Both in the 1941 Summer War and later the members of the resistance movement sought refuge in the forests, from where they organised surprise attacks on smaller enemy units. In the post-WW II years, thousands of people were hiding in the forest bunkers, all of whom were under the constant threat of being captured by the Soviets. Although historians mostly talk of 'forest brothers' as men and women taking part in armed resistance fighting, the term is actually somewhat wider, often including people hiding from the alien power who avoided direct armed conflicts. The total number of forest brothers was about 30 000. View in timeline...

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Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels: He was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory alongside Karl Marx.

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Franco, Francisco

Franco, Francisco: Spanish military leader and statesman who ruled as the dictator of Spain from 1936 until his death (1975), Spanish dictator from 1936 to 1975. He is buried in The valley of the fallen View in timeline...

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FRG

FRG: Erich Honecker, Wilhelm Pieck, Walter Ulbricht

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G

GDR

GDR: Willy Brandt, Konrad Adenauer, Helmut Kohl

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General sovietization

General sovietization: The Sovietization of the Baltic states refers to the sovietization of all spheres of life in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania when they were under control of the Soviet Union.

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Genocide

Genocide: the deliberate and systematic destruction of, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group"; killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group View in timeline...

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Glasnost

Glasnost: (Russian: гла́сность lit. "publicity") was a policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union. Introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the second half of the 1980s,Glasnost is often paired with Perestroika (literally: Restructuring), another reform instituted by Gorbachev at the same time.

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Ghetto

Ghetto: Jews were taken in ghetto by nazi. Only jewish people lived here.

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Goli otok

Goli otok: an island in the Adriatic Sea; a "marine Siberia"; a political camp on the Goli otok was formed in 1949; the prisoners were forced to hard manual labour in a quarry and in bauxite mines; the number of prisoners ranged from 16,000 to 32,000 and between 400 to 4,000 of them died; the political camp on the Goli otok was shut down in 1988; View in timeline...

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'Goulasch-communism'

'Goulasch-communism': János Kadar was the leader of this communist system. This system meant that the Hungarian people didn’t live under economic oppression.

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Graduation

Graduation: an action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the ceremony that is sometimes associated, where students become graduates

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Greater Serbia

Greater Serbia: The term Greater Serbia or Great Serbia (Serbian: Velika Srbija) applies to the Serbian nationalist and irredentist ideology directed towards the creation of a Serbian land which would incorporate all regions of traditional significance to the Serbian nation, and regions outside of Serbia that are populated mostly by Serbs.

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Guardia Civil

Guardia Civil: The Spanish gendarmerie, founded as a national police force in 1844. One of the main targets of ETA.

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Guerrilla war in Lithuania

Guerrilla war in Lithuania: Mostly civilians, led by the military, sought to defend the independence of Lithuania during and after the Second World War . For his current anti-state activities were arrested, taken to prison, exile, places, or died from the regular Soviet Army NKVD units and Stalinists who died on the battlefield or legalized - come from the underground. View in timeline...

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Gulag

Gulag: it was a kind of Soviet forced labor camp during the Stalin era, from the 1930s through the 1950s. The Gulag was recognized as a major instrument of political repression in the Soviet Union

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H

HDZ

HDZ: Croatian Democratic Union

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Helsinki Act

Helsinki Act: or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975. Thirty-three states, including the USA, Canada, and most European states except Albania and Andorra, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West. The Helsinki Accords, however, were not binding as they did not have treaty status.

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Henryka Krzywonos - Strycharska

Henryka Krzywonos - Strycharska: (born in 1953) a former opposition activist, now with her husband runs a family orphanage in Gdansk. On August 15, 1980 she stopped a tram she was driving when hearing about the beginning of a strike at Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk. That way she provoked the general strike in Gdansk and Pomerania, which later spread all over Poland and led to the registration of Solidarity Trade Union. During the Martial Law she helped the interned opposition leaders and remained active in the underground movement. She survived a severe beating by the secret police that left her unable to have children. Unlike other former opposition leaders from Gdansk, she withdrew from politics after 1989.

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Hirvepark meeting

Hirvepark meeting: In August 1987, the Estonian Group on Publication of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was founded (Estonian abbreviation: MRP–AEG). The group organized a mass meeting in Hirvepark in Tallinn the same month, where people demanded that thesecret protocol of the 1939 pact be made public. The meeting was not forcefully disbanded, as would have happened before, which showed that civil rights had expanded and the regime had softened – the authorities even granted permission to hold the demonstration.

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Holocaust

The Holocaust was the mass murder or genocide of approximately six million Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, throughout German-occupied territory.

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Hospital in Vukovar

Hospital in Vukovar: Serbian forces captured the Vukovar hospital with the promise that the JNA would safely evacuate it following an agreement reached together with the Croatian government. Serb militia failed to live up to an agreement with the Red Cross and other international observers to monitor the surrender. When the agreed time approached, an armoured Serb vehicle blocked the observers’ access across a bridge to the hospital while the prisoners were smuggled out in buses in another direction. They gathered the 300 men, among them wounded combatants and civilians alike, put them in buses and transported them to Ovčara. Many were beaten, until they were taken to a wooded ravine away from the town. The soldiers and paramilitary fighters then killed the majority of men prisoners, executing them by firearms. The bodies were then mostly thrown in a trench and covered by earth (a bulldozer was used to bury them in a mass grave).

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Hot air balloon flight by Fam. Wetzel

Hot air balloon flight by Fam. Wetzel: Required much material (1800 m³ wool). Everything was processed with a sewing machine. The burner worked with propane and they built a 1.4 x 1.4 m basket. 1st baloon was destroyed in flight. 2nd baloon used other materials. Needed much more material (4000 m³). New balloon was very labor intensive. The materials left over from the first balloon and could be reused. The flight started at 2:32am near Heinersdorf and flew at 2000m height. Propane went empty and they fell quickly. After 30min they landed near Naila (nobody got hurt). Met two western policemen and they have managed to escape.

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Hrvatska šutnja (the Croatian Silence):

Hrvatska šutnja (the Croatian Silence): an expression that refers to the repression of the Croatian national identity in Yugoslavia which was the result of suppression of the Croatian Spring at the Karađorđevo meeting in 1971; it lasted up until 1989

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I

Immigrants

Immigrants : He was a prime minister of Hungary between 1953-1955 who carried out reforms.

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Imre Nagy

Imre Nagy: He was a prime minister of Hungary between 1953-1955 who carried out reforms.

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Industrialisation

Industrialisation: The country should have improved the production of factories and become the country of steel and iron though it lacked the necessary raw materials.

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Ingrian Finns

Ingrian Finns: The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläiset or inkerinsuomalaiset) are the Finnish population of Ingria (now the central part of Leningrad Oblast of Russia) descending from Lutheran Finnish immigrants introduced to the area in the 17th century, when Finland and Ingria were both part of the Swedish Empire. In the forced population transfers before and after World War II they were relocated to other parts of the Soviet Union. View in timline...

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Intermovement

Intermovement: The Intermovement (International Movement of Workers in the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic) (Estonian: Interliikumine, Russian: Интердвижение,) was a political movement and organisation in the Estonian SSR. It was founded on 19 July 1988 and claimed by different sources 16,000 - 100,000 members.The original name of the movement was Interfront (International Front of Workers in the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic), which was changed to Intermovement in autumn 1988.

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International Court of Justice in The Hague

International Court of Justice in The Hague: primary judicial branch of the United Nations; it is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands

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Internment

Internment: the act of confining foreign citizens and foreign troops in a special internment camps. View in timeline...

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István Szabó

István Szabó:He is a Hungarian film director, screenwriter and opera director.

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J

Jacek Kuron

Jacek Kuron was born on 3rd March 1934 in Lviv. He was one of the democratic leaders of opposition in the People's Republic of Poland. He is widely known as the "godfather of the Polish opposition", the figure similar to Vaclav Havel in Czechoslovakia. Kuron was a prominent Polish social and political figure largely responsible for theorizing the movement that brought the back of communism, an ideology he had initially tried to reform. Kuron started out as an activist of the Polish Scouting Association trying to educate young people that would take charge of the future; he later co-founded the Workers' Defence Committee (KOR), a major dissident organization that was replaced by Solidarity in August 1980. After the changes in independent Poland, he served twice as Minister of Labour and Social Policy. Jacek Kuron died in 2004 in Warsaw.

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January Events

January Events: Took place in Lithuania between January 11 and 13, 1991 in the aftermath of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania.

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Jose Manuel Barroso

Jose Manuel Barroso:is the 11th and current President of the European Commission. He served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 April 2002 to 17 July 2004. Speech by President Barroso at the ceremony to mark the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union: "Croatia's accession to the European Union is a historic event, which returns the country to its rightful place at the heart of Europe. I look forward to Croatia's contribution to the EU, which will be a success story – to the benefit of the Union, of the people of Croatia and of South East Europe as whole."

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Jeans and hairstyle

Jeans and hairstyle:Refusal of jeans until 1978. Jeans weren't allowed at schools. FGY members should cut the long hair of their male classmates - against western lifestyle. But since 1978: Jeans production in the GDR to avoid the black market.

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Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz Tito: leader of the Yugoslaw partisans and a Yugoslaw revolutionary and statesman serving from 1945 until his death in 1980

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Josip Jović

Josip Jović: Croatian police officer who was killed by Serb forces during Plitvice Lakes incident. He is widely known as the first Croatian victim of the Croatian War of Independence.

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Johan Laidoner

Johan Laidoner (12 February 1884 in Viiratsi, Estonia – 13 March 1953 in Vladimir, Russia) was a seminal figure of Estonian history between the world wars. His highest position was Commander-in-chief of the Estonian Army in 1918–1920, 1924–1925, and 1934–1940.

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Joint Soviet nation

Joint Soviet nation: Propaganda term to justice an intensification of Russification and bilingualism during the second half of the 1970s. The usage and users of Russian were afforded various privileges, and leadership positions in the Estonian Communist Party and Soviet Estonia were held by people even more obedient to the Kremlin.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.

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JNA

JNA The Yugoslav People's Army, also referred to as the Yugoslav National Army, or simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

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K

Karađorđevo

Karađorđevo: is a village in Serbia where a SKJ's (League of Communists of Yugoslavia) Central Committee meeting was held in 1971; it was decided upon an elimination of the members of the Croatian Spring from the SKH (League of Communists of Croatia); this meeting marked the repression of the Croatian Spring

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Karl Marx

Karl Marx: German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist and revolutionary socialist.

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Karol Wojtyla’s election to the papacy and his first pilgrimage to Poland

Karol Wojtyla’s election to the papacy and his first pilgrimage to Poland On the 16th of October 1978, Karol Wojtyła, the Polish Cardinal, was elected as the new Pope. John Paul II, the first Polish Pope in the history, came to Warsaw, the capital of Poland, on the 2nd of June 1979. It was one of the most important events that caused the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. When John Paul II was celebrating a mass on the Victory Square in Warsaw, he said these very important words: 'Don't be afraid', 'Let your Spirit descend! Let your Spirit descend and renew the face of the earth, the face of this land'. These words gave hope to the Polish people to realise dreams about freedom and showed them the way to fight Communism. After the pilgrimage the Polish authorities began to fear that Poles felt united and strong.

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Károly Makk

Károly Makk is a Hungarian film director and screenwriter. Five of his films have been nominated for the Palme d' Or at the Cannes Film Festival without success.

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KGB

KGB: The Committee for State Security, more commonly known by its transliteration "KGB" (Russian: Комитет государственной безопасности (КГБ), Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (KGB), was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its collapse in 1991.

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Krajačić, Stevo

Krajačić, Stevo: the UDBA’s commander responsible for Croatia; the founder of the political camp on the Goli otok

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Komi Republic, Krasnoyarsk

Komi Republic, Krasnoyarsk: territories of deportations in East Siberia. In the June of 1941, about 17.6 thousand residents of Lithuania were deported to the Komi Republic, the Altai and Krasnoyarsk territory and the Novosibirsk oblast. Around 3 thousand men were separated from their families and transported to camps as prisoners.

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Konstantin Päts

Konstantin Päts (23 February 1874 – 18 January 1956) was the most influential politician of interwar Estonia. During his presidency, the Soviet Union occupied Estonia in 1940. As President, he was forced to sign decrees for over a month, until he was finally arrested and deported to Russia, where he died in 1956.

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Komsomol

Komsomol The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol). It is an organizationfor youth from aged 14-26 years old.

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Kulak

Kulaks: "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuls in Ukraine, also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of relatively affluent farmers in the Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union. In Estonia 1947, a kulak's household' was defined, which included farms that had used a paid workforce during or after the German occupation, or made a profit from renting land or agricultural machinery. People running such farms were decreed as kulaks by the decision of local authorities, and had to pay higher taxes. A special documentation of their farms was drawn up, and used in 1949 in determining families for deportations within the state security apparatus.

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Kulak

Kulak: Wealthy pleasants in the XXth century. They were forced to enter the agricultural cooperatives.

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L

LAF (Lithuanian Activist Front)

LAF (Lithuanian Activist Front): A short-lived organisation established in 1940 after Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union

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Leaving country Bans

Leaving country Bans: (10 November 1982) was the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982

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Lech Walesa

Lech Walesa: was born on September 29th 1943 in Popowo, Poland. He is a Polish politician, trade-union organizer, and human-rights activist. A charismatic leader, he co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland between 1990 and 1995. Walesa, the son of a carpenter, received only primary and vocational education and in 1967 began work as an electrician at the huge Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk. He witnessed the 1970 food riots in Gdansk in which the communist militia forces killed a number of demonstrators. When new protests against Poland's communist government erupted in 1976, Walesa emerged as an antigovernment union activist and lost his job as a result. On August 14, 1980 Walesa took charge of an Interfactory Strike Committee that united the enterprises of the Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia area. This committee issued a set of bold political demands, including the right to strike and form free trade unions, and it proclaimed a general strike. Fearing a national revolt, the communist authorities yielded to the workers' principal demands, and on August 31 Walesa and Mieczyslaw Jagielski, the representative of the communist government, signed an agreement conceding to the workers the right to organize freely and independently. When some 10 million Polish workers and farmers joined semiautonomous unions in response to this momentous agreement, the Interfactory Strike Committee was transformed into a national federation of unions under the name Solidarity, with Walesa as its chairman and chief spokesman.

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Lennart Georg Meri

Lennart Georg Meri: He was a writer, film director and statesman who served as the second President of Estonia from 1992 to 2001. Meri was a leader of the Estonian independence movement

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Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev

Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev: (10 November 1982) was the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982

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Letter of the Forty

Letter of the Forty: On 28 October 1980 forty Estonian scientists and cultural figures sent an open letter to Pravda, the central daily of the Soviet Union, and to the Soviet Estonian papers Sovetskaya Estoniya and Rahva Hääl (Voice of People). The letter protested against the forceful expansion of the domain of usage of the Russian language and against its intensified teaching, which had been going on since 1978. View in timeline...

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"Lithuanian Catholic Church Chronicle"

"Lithuanian Catholic Church Chronicle": Appeared the first number of Lithuanian Catholic Church Chronicle View in timeline...

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Butyrka prison

Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF): A short-lived organisation established in 1940 after Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union

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Lithuanian Freedom League (LFL)

Lithuanian Freedom League (LFL): was a dissident organization in the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and a political party in independent Republic of Lithuania. Established as an underground resistance group in 1978, LFL was headed by Antanas Terleckas. Pro-independence LLL published anti-Soviet literature and organized protest rallies. While it enjoyed limited popularity in 1987–1989, it grew increasingly irrelevant after independence declaration in 1990.

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Lithuanian Liberty League (LLL)

Lithuanian Liberty League (LLL): The Lithuanian Liberty League or LLL was a dissident organization in the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and a political party in independent Republic of Lithuania. Established as an underground resistance group in 1978, LLL was headed by Antanas Terleckas View in timeline...

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Le Perthus (La Jonquera)

Le Perthus (La Jonquera): On 28th January, 1939 the frontier was opened to civilians and 5th February to soldiers. It is estimated that nearly 220,000 soldiers went through Le Perthus between 5th February and 10th February.

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LIíl Pass (La Vajol)

LIíl Pass (La Vajol) Hundreds of civilians and soldiers fled through this mountain pass, route to Les Illas, including the most important representatives of Republican institutions, the President of the Generalitat de Catalunya, Lluis Companys, the President of the Basque Government, José Antonio de Aguirre, The President of the Republic, Manuel Azaña, and the President of Parliament, Diego Martinez Barrio, the majority of whom never returned to their homeland.

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Log revolution

Log revolution: The Log Revolution (Croatian: Balvan revolucija) was an insurrection which started on August 17, 1990 in areas of the Republic of Croatia which were populated significantly by ethnic Serbs. A full year of tension, including minor skirmishes, passed before these events would escalate into the Croatian War of Independence.

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Lukša Juozas

Lukša Juozas: One of Lithuanian partisan leaders, a member of the Lithuanian Activist front.

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M

Manrella Pass (Agullana)

Manrella Pass (Agullana): The Manrella Pass it was one of the mountain crossings which were used by the hundreds of refugees who went through Agullana in 1939. When they arrived in the Les Illas neighbourhood, the majority were taken towards Le Boulou and then transferred on foot to the concentration camps which had been opened on the Roussillon beaches or by train to the centre of France. In 1981 this place was chosen to erect a monument in memory of Lluis Companys Jover (1882 - 1940).

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Martial Law

Martial Law: Martial Law in Poland 1981-1983 was a state of emergency introduced on December 13th, 1981 in the whole area of the Polish People's Republic (PRL), by virtue of the resolution of the state on December 12th, 1981. View in timeline...

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Mas Perxés (Agullana)

Mas Perxés (Agullana): The Perxés country house was confiscated by the Generalitat de Catalunya in the spring of 1938 with the intention of fitting it out as a war refuge. The Perxés country house was also used during the retreat as a deposit for part of the safeguarded Catalan Artistic Heritage from several towns and it also became the temporary residence of politicians, civil servants and intellectuals before leaving the country on their route into exile.

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Mass grave

Mass grave: a grave containing multiple number of human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial; more than 500 mass graves were discovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina View in timeline...

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Monetary Union

Monetary Union:Spain entered to the Monetary Union in 1998 and adopted the Euro as a common currency after fulfilling the criteria. For the Spanish authorities it was a historic victory.

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Matica Hrvatska (Latin: Matrix Croatica)

Matica Hrvatska (Latin: Matrix Croatica): is one of the oldest Croatian cultural institutions, dating back to 1842; it does publishing and organizing cultural events, symposia, round-table discussions and theatre; in 1967 the Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language was brought there; in 1972 its work was banned and its members were arrested; it resumed work after Croatian independence, officially since December 8, 1990

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Mátyás Rákosi

Mátyás Rákosi: He was the Hungarian Communist party leader from 1948-1953.

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Mas Perxés (Agullana)

Mas Perxés (Agullana): The Perxés country house was confiscated by the Generalitat de Catalunya in the spring of 1938 with the intention of fitting it out as a war refuge. The Perxés country house was also used during the retreat as a deposit for part of the safeguarded Catalan Artistic Heritage from several towns and it also became the temporary residence of politicians, civil servants and intellectuals before leaving the country on their route into exile.

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Manrella Pass (Agullana)

Manrella Pass (Agullana): The Manrella Pass it was one of the mountain crossings which were used by the hundreds of refugees who went through Agullana in 1939. When they arrived in the Les Illas neighbourhood, the majority were taken towards Le Boulou and then transferred on foot to the concentration camps which had been opened on the Roussillon beaches or by train to the centre of France. In 1981 this place was chosen to erect a monument in memory of Lluis Companys Jover (1882 - 1940).

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Memento Park

Memento Park: It is an open air museum in Budapest dedicated to monumental statues from Hungary' Communist Period (1949–1989).

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MEFESZ

MEFESZ: The Association of Hungarian University and College Students who started the revolution by organising demonstrations to express solidarity with Poland.

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Miklós Jancsó (1921-2014)

Miklós Jancsó (1921-2014): He was a Hungarian film director and screenwriter. His films included: The Round Up (1965), the Red and the White (1967), Red Psalm (1971).

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Milan Kučan

Milan Kučan: Slovenian politician and statesman; president of Slovenia from 1991 to 2002

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Mile Dedaković Jastreb

Mile Dedaković Jastreb: retired Croatian Army colonel. Also known by his nom de guerre Jastreb ("Hawk"), Dedaković is best known for commanding the 204th Vukovar Brigade and the city of Vukovar's defenses in during the 1991 Battle of Vukovar in the early stages of the Croatian War of Independence.

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Miko Tripalo

Miko Tripalo: a Croatian politician, one of the leaders of the Croatian Spring; an advocate for democracy and greater independence and equality of the republics within Yugoslavia; he was dismissed from his position after the Karađorđevo meeting and excluded from politics.

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Ministry for State Security (= Stasi)

Ministry for State Security (= Stasi): It was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic or GDR. The Stasi was headquartered in East Berlin, especially in a complex in Berlin Lichtenberg and other smaller stations in the city. It was founded on 8 February 1950.Its tasks were : -Observe and Control the inhabitants of East-Germany -secret service of the GDR -Take criminals to prison -paid people for being agents who observed their friends, neighbours or family members -repressive methods, for example listen to private phone talks to get some secret information -It controls everything from policy to private life of all East German inhabitants View in timeline...

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"Moja domovina" ("My Homeland")

"Moja domovina" ("My Homeland") a Croatian patriotic song originally recorded in 1991 as a charity single by a supergroup called "Croatian Band Aid" featuring a number of prominent local musicians from all musical genres. The song was released in the initial stages of the Croatian War of Independence. Although more than two decades have now passed since the song was first aired, its popularity hasn't diminished through the years. During the Croatian War of Independence it was often played to boost moral either among the soldiers on the battlefield or the civilians in their shelters. In recent times the song is usually sung during all important sport events and represents a symbol of unity and pride. According to numerous surveys, "Moja domovina" is the most popular patriotic song among Croatian citizens ever written.

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Molotov - Ribbentrop Pact

Molotov - Ribbentrop Pact: named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, officially the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union, and also known as the Ribbentrop–Molotov Pact or Nazi–Soviet Pact, was a non-aggression pact signed in Moscow in the late hours of 23 August 1939.

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Molotov-Ribbentrop pact

Molotov-Ribbentrop pact: After failed talks with the Western countries, the Soviet Union began approaching Germany, culminating, in 23 of August 1939, in the Treaty of Non-Aggression (the Molotov-Ribbentrop or Hitler-Stalin pact). The secret protocol of the treaty created spheres of influence in Eastern Europe. The Baltic countries, Finland, eastern Poland and Bessarabia were to belong to the Soviet Union, and the majority of Poland to Germany.

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Monday-Demonstrations

Monday-Demonstrations: These demonstration happened from the 4th Semptember to the 9th October in Leipzig. The slogan of these demonstrations was ‚We are the people!' and it was mainly against the Berlin wall and the repressive methods. The government tries to prohibit these demonstrations with violence, but meanwhile the followers were so many so violence couldn't opress them anymore. As a result, Erich Honecker was displaced. These demonstrations led the GDR inhabitants to their freedom.

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Monday demonstrations

Monday demonstrations: 9th October 1989: Biggest Monday demonstration in Leipzig (Monday demonstrations take place since 4th September) against the Berlin Wall View in timeline...

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MTS

MTS Station of machines and tractors. It was formed for collective farms.

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MUME (Exile memorial Museum) at La Jonquera

MUME (Exile memorial Museum) at La Jonquera: The republican retreat converted La Jonquera in the only possible way for the majority of Catalan and Spanish republicans to cross the border on their route into exile due to the occupation of Catalan territory by the pro-Franco Army. The pass and the village of Le Perthus was the main route set up by the French Authorities toward the Eastern Pyrenees. It is estimated that more than half of the nearly 500,000 people who went into exile at the beginning of February, 1939 left via La Jonquera. The Memorial Exile Museum is situated in La Jonquera.

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Music

Music: Songs were checked by the government. No texts against the policy. Many bands were forbidden, e.g. Klaus Renft Combo - the government wanted to avoid uprisings. Refusal of beat, rock, jazz etc. Refusal of foreign bands like the Beatles, Rolling Stones - the government wanted to avoid western lifestyle.

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N

Narva agreement

Narva agreement: Estonian-Soviet agreement dictated by the Soviet Union in order to invade the Republic of Estonia in 1940. At 8 in the morning of 17 June 1940, General Johan Laidoner, commander in chief of the Estonian Armed Forces, and General Kirill Meretskov, head of the Leningrad Military District, signed an agreement in Narva. The special protocol with elements of capitulation was demanded by the Soviet Union, allowing the Red Army troops the legal right to enter the territory of the Republic of Estonia, take over important military sites, establish their own headquarters anywhere, place their military staff at telephone exchanges, build airfields and organise the provision of supplies. View in timeline...

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NATO

NATO:An intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009.

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Negotiation

Negotiation:A dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach an understanding, resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests.

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Narodni neprijatelj

Narodni neprijatelj: Marxist label for political opponents or opposition; persons suspected or accused of crimes against the state; in Communist Yugoslavia, UDBA proclaimed Croatian patriotism, nationalism and the Catholic Church as public enemies. View in timeline...

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Nationalization

Nationalization: Estonian-Soviet agreement dictated by the Soviet Union in order to invade the Republic of Estonia in 1940. At 8 in the morning of 17 June 1940, General Johan Laidoner, commander in chief of the Estonian Armed Forces, and General Kirill Meretskov, head of the Leningrad Military District, signed an agreement in Narva. The special protocol with elements of capitulation was demanded by the Soviet Union, allowing the Red Army troops the legal right to enter the territory of the Republic of Estonia, take over important military sites, establish their own headquarters anywhere, place their military staff at telephone exchanges, build airfields and organise the provision of supplies. View in timeline...

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Nazi Germany occupation

Nazi Germany occupation: In July 1941 Estonia was conquered by Nazi Germany, who were forced out by advancing Soviet troops in 1944. View in timeline...

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Nazi occupation

Nazi occupation: lasted from the German invasion of Soviet Union to the end of the Battle of Memel (June 22, 1941 to January 28, 1945).

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NATO

NATO: Tne North Atlantic Treaty Organization; intergovernmental military alliance

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New song Movement ("La Nova Cançó")

New song Movement ("La Nova Cançó"):It was a movement that took place in the musical landscape of the Catalan countries, during the general Franco's dictatorship, which meant the step to write a song in Catalan. These songs complaint and claim for political freedoms, which led to administrative difficulties and official prohibitions; we have to remember that at that time, the text of the songs had to be reviewed and approved by the censorship. The new song began in the 1950s; one of the first bands was Els Setze Jutges. It was a new genre, differentiated from the choral singing and from the clear French origins, and articulated as a movement around the claim language and ethical democratic presuppositions. At the same time, the Folk group claimed and spread in Catalan folk music of Anglo-Saxon roots. These years were years of misery, when cultural initiatives for the cultural recovery were produced in exile or, in any case, individually and without too much public significance. At the end of the 50s decade, the situation began to change: the economic level ended the period of economic autarky and, at political level, the fascist State was admitted to the United Nations; this fact forced the Government to improve its international image. Little by little, the Catalan language, public use of which had been expressly forbidden after Catalonia's fall, started getting small cracks of public presence.

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Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev: led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War

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Nikolai Karotamm

Nikolai Karotamm: led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War View in timeline...

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NKVD

NKVD: People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs - Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union's repressive agency (officially considered to be "counter-revolutionary crime and / policing body).

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NKVD

NKVD: The Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party. It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police which at times was part of the agency and is known for its political repression, during the era of Joseph Stalin. The NKVD is best known for the activities of the Gulag and the Main Directorate for State Security (GUGB), the predecessor of the KGB). The NKVD conducted mass extrajudicial executions, ran the Gulag system of forced labor camps and suppressed underground resistance, and was also responsible for mass deportations. It was also tasked with protection of Soviet borders and espionage, which included political assassinations abroad, influencing foreign governments and enforcing Stalinist policy within communist movements in other countries.

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Nobel Peace Prize for Lech Walesa

Nobel Peace Prize for Lech Walesa: Lech Wałęsa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his campaign for freedom of organization in Poland on the 5th of October 1983. Wałęsa was employed as an electrician at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk. He was fired for having participated in the demands for independent labour unions. During the strikes in 1980, Wałęsa managed to enter the Lenin Shipyard, and he led the negotiations with the authorities. These ended in a victory for the Solidarity union and Lech Wałęsa became the symbol of the revolt against the party's monopoly on power. In December 1981 martial law was declared in Poland and Wałęsa, along with many other members of the opposition movement, was arrested. The Polish authorities banned Solidarity and used many forms of repression against opposition activists even after martial law was lifted in July 1983. Lech Wałęsa did not accept The Nobel Peace Prize himself because he was afraid the Polish authorities would not let him return to the country. On the 10th of December 1983 in Oslo the Prize was accepted by his wife Danuta Wałęsa and his 13-year-old son Bogdan.

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Numerus Clausus

Numerus Clausus: It was a law in which the policitians limited the number of minority young people in further education.

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O

Occupation

Occupation: refers to the military occupation of the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 14 June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics, unrecognised internationally by most countries.

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One-party totalitarian system

One-party totalitarian system: The communist party seized the power by fraud at elections and drove all their enemies into exile, prison.

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Open religious resistance to occupants beginning

Open religious resistance to occupants beginning: Started open opposition of the occupation regime of the religious writing petitions to the authorities, church hierarchs protecting rights of believers View in timeline...

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Operation Vistula

Operation Vistula: International military action aimed at the Ukrainian Insurgent Army and the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the resettlement operation organised to remove the selected groups of population (Ukrainians, Boykos, Lemkos), as well as Polish-Ukrainian mixed families from the south-eastern area of Poland on the Recovered Territories. It all took place two years after the end of World War II. It was carried out by the Polish military formations, units of the Ministry of Public Security and the civilian agencies (National Office for Repatriation).

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Our Folks

Our Folks: Sami Swoi (Our Folks) – a movie made in 1967. It was black-and-white, but in 2000 it was colorized. It is a story about two families that were resettled from Eastern Borderlands after the Second World War. It is a comedy. It lasts 78 minutes. Life shown in this movie is unrealistic. People are happy, and they do not have any problems. Despite the lack of realism, Polish people now think that it is one of the best Polish comedies ever made. Actors play realistically and with passion. The plot is really interesting. We recommend this movie to every fan of comedies.

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OZNA

OZNA: "The Department of National Security"; the notorious communist secret police; responsible for a number of mass liquidations during and after the Second World War; in 1946 reorganized in the UDBA (The State Security Service) and KOS (The Counterintelligence Service of the Yugoslav People's Army);View in timeline...

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One-party State

One-party State:When only one party rules the state, and no other parties exist.

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Ovčara

Ovčara: war crime that took place between November 20 and 21, 1991 at Ovčara, a location near the city of Vukovar. A mostly Croatian group of 263 men and 1 woman (including civilians and POWs), of whom 194 have been identified, were murdered by members of the Serb militias following the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) withdrawal from Ovčara after it brought those patients there from the Vukovar hospital. The names include one woman, a 77-year old man as the oldest and a 16-year old boy as the youngest victim of the massacre. Of these, 23 were older than 49 years of age, which is higher than Croatian military service age. Victims also included journalist Siniša Glavašević and his technician Branimir Polovina.
For their roles in orchestrating the massacre, the Yugoslav military leaders Veselin Šljivančanin and Mile Mrkšić were convicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in 2007, 2009 and 2010.

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P

Pacific Resistance

Pacific Resistance: Resistance movements are sometimes also referred to as "the underground". Forms of resistance: Non-violent; Sabotage – the Arbeitseinsatz ("Work Contribution") forced locals to work for the Germans, but work was often done slowly or intentionally badly; Strikes and demonstrations, based on existing organizations, such as the churches, students, communists and doctors (professional resistance)

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Paldiski

Paldiski:In 1962, Paldiski became a Soviet Navy nuclear submarine training centre. With two land-based nuclear reactors, and employing some 16,000 people, it was the largest such facility in the Soviet Union. Because of its importance, the whole city was closed off with barbed wire until the last Russian warship left in August 1994. Russia relinquished control of the nuclear reactor facilities in September 1995.

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Paneuropean Picnic

Paneuropean Picnic:It was a peaceful demonstration. It was the first step towards unification of Europe.

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Perestroika

Perestroika: (Russian: перестро́йка), was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s (1986), widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform. The literal meaning of perestroika is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system. About poster: Perestroika (re-construction, a process that lead to many progressive changes in the Soviet society), Glasnost (towards freedom of speech, right to information, more truth in media, less propaganda), Uskorenie (Acceleration, an economical program - introducing some mild attributes of market economy, such as ""More money for more work"".)

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Partisan

Partisan: is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity

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Paneuropean Picnic in Hungary

Paneuropean Picnic in Hungary: The Paneuropean Picnic was an event that happened at the border between Austria and Hungary. The event took place on August 19th, 1989 and it was planned to be a peaceful demonstration. Both countries agreed to open a gate in the border fence. More than 600 citizens of the German Democratic Republic took the chance to cross into the west once the Iron Curtain was opened. They had been told about the event by its organizers. This flight was also a symbol for the unhappiness. of Germany.

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Peaceful Revolution

Peaceful Revolution: The "Peaceful Revolution" was the entireness of all political and structural changes in East Germany from 1989 to 1990.In the years before Leipzig played a significant role. It all started with the prayers of peace Leipzig's Church St. Nikolai in 1982. Until 1988 the number of participants increased continual and the prayers gave people the fundament and the opportunity of political exchange and communication in a more intimate atmosphere. On the 11th January in 1989 5000 flyers for "democratic innovation of our society" were spread by members of the basic groups. Several political rallies and demonstrations concerning the demand of democracy followed where the government of the GDR tried to suppress the imminent revolution and to terrorize the people in a massive way by recruting parts of the police and NVA soldiers. The deciding turning point finally came with the most successful and peaceful demonstration on the 9th October 1989, where 70.000 people took part without any use of violence from the government. In the end the "Peaceful Revolution" of Leipzig was successful and led to the fall of the Berlin Wall, to democracy in East Germany and to the reunion of Germany.

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Passive resistance

Passive resistance: During beginning of sixties there were nearly no public uprisings in GDR because the people were afraid of the government, so there were just some little regional protest or passive resistance. View in timeline...

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Pedro Muguruza and Diego Méndez

Pedro Muguruza and Diego Méndez:they were the ones who designed the monument, a landmark of 20th-century Spanish architecture . View in timeline...

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Peralada Fortress (Peralada)

Peralada Fortress (Peralada): The Castle was confiscated in 1938 and the Staff Officers of the Republican Army installed themselves there together with a fleet of vehicles and a workshop for the assembly of airplanes. Several consignments of works of art evacuated from the Prado Museum were also deposited there. These works of art were placed on the ground floor in the castle, the convent, the church and the crypt of Our Lady of Carmen. This patrimonial and artistic collection remained in the castle buildings until they were evacuated to Ceret and Geneva between the 3rd and 4th February, 1939. The castle also provided accommodation for a few days for the Delegation of the Presidency of the Republic, led by Manuel Azaña.

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Perpignan Avenue (Figueres)

Perpignan Avenue (Figueres): Figueres was the last Catalan town in which the Republican Government set up before setting out on the route towards France. As an indispensable communications centre and an important on route for troops ammunition and war materials, this Ampurdanese town came under the constant fire of the pro-Franco Aviation and suffered fierce bombardment.

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Personality cult

Personality cult : An individual uses mass media, propaganda or other methods to create an idealized, heroic or god-like public image.

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Political foundations (dissidence)

Political foundations (dissidence): Democratic movements were no longer narrowly restricted to Estonians, as many participants were also non-Estonians, whose aim was to democratise the Soviet Union. The emphasis was thus not on nationality, but on democracy, with the founding principle being that no subjugated nation could achieve independence fighting on its own. Estonian independence was now seen as an international issue. In the 1970s, opposition moved to the public sphere, where the main means were public letters and addresses to the power organs, international organisations and foreign governments. View in timeline...

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Poetry against the regime

Poetry against the regime:During the times of the regime poetry had a big influence on the Polish society. It appealed to all people in our country so the power it had was sometimes used in an improper way. Poets were made to write about the members of the government as about heroes, who they weren't at all. However, some stayed strong and did not allow themselves to be used as tools to create a fictional picture of Poland as a "prospering country". One of them was Zbigniew Herbert (born in 1924 – died in 1998). The political thaw and the end of compulsory social realism in literature enabled him to debut. His first works came to light in 1956 and in the 80s of the twentieth century he became a major poet of the Polish opposition. His works became, especially for the younger generation, a manifesto of freedom and expression of resistance.

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Polish cinema in the time of communist regime

Polish cinema in the time of communist regime:The purpose of cinema in Poland was the promotion of social realism ideas, encouraging citizens to fight political opponents and support land reform and the nationalization of industry. Soviet films of the Stalin era constituted the major part of the then Polish repertoire. They were all similar to each other in terms of style and subject, contained the same educational message and created almost identical characters. The most glaring figure of socialist realism took the so-called "production films". The artists of that period wanted to erase their individuality. Films were schematic, without the element of surprise. They showed in positive light heroes of socialist labour, while the capitalists were villains. Ambitious film works against the policy of the Socialist Party were censored or their presentation was forbidden.

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Preventive censorship

Preventive censorship was a form of government control over materials not yet published and repressive censorship meant searching for, prohibiting and possible withdrawal of materials from circulation that had already leaked out (not yet censored before publication). Although, in theory the censorship applied to publications appearing in a print run of more than 100 copies, in practice it checked also print short-runs (which is why the opposition often - as if to spite the authority - underlined that the issue was published as pamphlets and books only in 99 copies). This meant that officials could cross out or entirely prohibit from publication fragments, expressions or information uncomfortable for the authorities. Preventive and repressive censorship operated under the Head Office for Audit, Publications and Performances (GUKPPiW).

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"Prljavo kazalište"

"Prljavo kazalište":a rock and roll band from Zagreb. Since its formation in 1977, the group remained one of the top acts of both the Croatian and the former Yugoslav rock scenes.. The 6th album included the song Mojoj majci which was tributed to one of the members recently deceased mother. Hence the lyrics Zadnja ruža Hrvatska (meaning: Last Croatian Rose) made the song very popular in Croatia, but also criticized in some parts of the rest of Yugoslavia due to (perceived) nationalist undertones, which were considered politically incorrect for the Yugoslav policy of brotherhood and unity. After the album's release, the band went on an international tour which culminated with a big open-air show played on October 17, 1989 on the Republic Square in Zagreb in front of approximately 200,000–300,000 people.

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Phare Program

Phare Program:This program is one of the instruments financed by the European Union to assisst the applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparations for joining the EU.

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Poland in NATO operations now

Poland in NATO operations now:Poland perceives the Alliance as significant forum of dialogue and consultations in transatlantic relations, within "Partnership for Peace" program and in special relations with Russia and Ukraine. Poland also supports further NATO enlargement. Stabilisation activities carried out in different regions of the world show the role of the Alliance in international security. Poland participates in all the most important NATO operations: in Afghanistan (ISAF), Kosovo (KFOR), Iraq (training mission NTM-I) and in the Mediterranean Sea (Active Endeavour). At the moment engagement in Afghanistan is a priority for Poland. Almost 2000 soldiers are deployed there. It is the first NATO operation of this kind. It requires performing various military and civilian tasks, aiming at ensuring security and stability as well as gradual reconstruction of the country. That is why it is very important for NATO's role in the future.

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Poland joins NATO

Poland joins NATO:The dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991 and a positive response from NATO member states made Poland's accession to the North Atlantic Alliance become a reality. The year 1994 marked a very important stage in the negotiation process, i.e. the drafting of the Partnership for Peace programme which became an important instrument preparing Poland's accession to NATO. As a result, in 1997 NATO heads of state and government in Madrid decided to officially invite Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary to join the organisation. The official signing of Poland's, the Czech Republic's and Hungary's accession protocols, ratified by the then member states, took place on 16 December 1997 in Brussels. The last stage of the ratification process consisted in delivering to the United States (depositary of the Treaty) the so-called accession instrument. The ceremony was held on 12 March 1999 in Independence, Missouri. The then Foreign Minister of the Republic of Poland Bronisław Geremek officially confirmed Poland's accession to NATO by presenting Secretary of State Madeleine Albright with Poland's act of accession to the North Atlantic Alliance.

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Poland joins The Schengen Area

Poland joins The Schengen Area:In 1985 The Schengen Agreement was signed by five countries which were then part of the European Community. The Schengen Area existed outside the structure of the EC. In 1990 the Schengen Convention, which proposed the abolition of internal borders and a common visa policy was signed. The rules and agreements existed then entirely outside of the European Union. This led to the creation of Schengen Area in March 1995. More and more EU member states joined the Schengen Area, which resulted in its incorporation in the European Union structures. The Schengen Area consists of 26 countries; some states are associated with The Schengen Area, benefiting from the opportunities that the Schengen Area offers. The Schengen Area allows citizens of countries belonging to it free travel as a result of eliminated border controls between member states. There are also stricter controls on the borders with non-Schengen states to protect the interests of The Schengen countries. There is free movement of goods, information, money and people, thus encouraging cooperation within the Schengen Area. Poland joined the Schengen Area on 21 December 2007 together with The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

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Polish accession to EU

Polish accession to EU: Accession of Poland to the European Union took place in May 2004. Poland had been negotiating with the EU since 1989. With the fall of communism in 1989/1990 in Poland, Poland embarked on a series of reforms and changes in foreign policy, intending to join the EU and NATO. On 19 September 1989 Poland signed the agreement for trade and trade co-operation with the (then) European Community (EC). Polish intention to join the EU was expressed by Polish Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki in his speech in the European Parliament in February 1990 and in June 1991 by Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs Krzysztof Skubiszewski in Sejm (Polish Parliament). On 19 May 1990 Poland started a procedure to begin negotiations for an association agreement and the negotiations officially began in December 1990. About a year later, on 16 December 1991 the European Union Association Agreement was signed by Poland. The Agreement came into force on 1 February 1994 (its III part on the mutual trade relations came into force earlier on 1 March 1992). As a result of diplomatic interventions by the central European states of the Visegrád group, the European Council decided at its Copenhagen summit in June 1993 that: "the associate member states from Central and Eastern Europe, if they so wish, will become members of the EU. To achieve this, however, they must fulfil the appropriate conditions." Those conditions (known as the Copenhagen criteria, or simply, membership criteria) were: 1. That candidate countries achieve stable institutions that guarantee democracy, legality, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities. 2. That candidate countries have a working market economy, capable of competing effectively on EU markets. 3. That candidate countries are capable of accepting all the membership responsibilities, political, economic and monetary. At the Luxembourg summit in 1997, the EU accepted the Commission's opinion to invited (Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Estonia and Cyprus) to start talks on their accession to the EU. The negotiation process started on 31 March 1998. Poland finished the accession negotiations in December 2002. Then, the Accession Treaty was signed in Athens on 16 April 2003 (Treaty of Accession 2003). After the ratification of that Treaty in the Polish European Union membership referendum, 2003, Poland and other 9 countries became the members of EU on 1 May 2004.

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Polish important people in the EU parliament

Polish important people in the EU parliament: Janusz Lewandowski is the European Commissioner for Financial Programming and Budget. Jarosław Pietras is the General Director of the Council of the European Union. Jerzy Plewa is the General Director of the Directorate for Agriculture in the EC. Marek Belka is a member of the General Council of the European Central Bank. Marek Safjan is the Judge of the Court of Justice. Irena Wiszniewska-Białecka is the Judge of the Court of First Instance. Augustyn Kubik is the Auditor of the Court of Auditors. Irena Boruta is the Judge of the Civil Service Tribunal. As you can see we have many important people in the European Union.

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Polish Presidency in the EU

Polish Presidency in the EU:Polish Presidency of the Council of the European Union was a period of time when Poland led the Council of the European Union. Between the 1July 2011 and 31 December 2011Poland for the first time took over the presidency of the European Union Council. Fulfilling the functions of presidency of the EU Council was the result of the Polish EU membership and its obligations.

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Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II: (Karol Jozef Wojtyla) – (18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005 ) was the head of the Catholic Church from 16 October 1978 to his death in 2005. He was the second longest-serving pope in history. The election of Cardinal Karol Wojtyla as Pope meant a lot for the Polish people. They started to believe that they became important for the world. From then on, everybody could hear about Poland and about its difficult political situation. After John Paul II's first pilgrimage to Poland (in June 1979) people became more powerful and brave, they believed that they could change the system in Poland. The Pope was against communism and he gave a lot of support to Polish people during those difficult times.

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Popular Front

Popular Front: the war took place between two different facts. In Popular Front fought republicans, communist and left ideology people. 10% of the construction workforce were convicts, some of them Popular Front political prisoners

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Popular Front of Estonia

Primo de Rivera

Primo de Rivera: Spanish dictator from 1923 to 1926. He is buried in The valley of the fallen. View in timeline...

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"Priboj" (Surf), "Osen" (Autumn), "Vesna" (Spring)

"Priboj" (Surf), "Osen" (Autumn), "Vesna" (Spring): In 1945-1948, families of guerilla fighters and their active supporters were deported from Lithuania, where mass resistance was huge. The largest deportation operation with a code name "Vesna" (Spring) took place in 1948, 22-23rd May. In 1949, March 25-28, an operation with a coded name "Priboj" ("Surf") was carried out in the three Baltic Republics.

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Product Bans

Product Bans: Range of mountains in Southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain

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Protest action of Romas Kalanta

Protest action of Romas Kalanta: Romas Kalanta was a Lithuanian high school student known for his public self-immolation protesting Soviet regime in Lithuania. Kalanta's death provoked the largest post-war riots in Lithuania and inspired similar self-immolations View in timeline...

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Protest against the GDR government

Protest against the GDR government: This demonstration happened on 17th January 1988. Originally, the demonstration was a traditional one of the SED-members for the remembrance of Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht. But this time, people who wanted to leave the GDR protested against the governmental system. The FRG government becomes attentive of this protest because of the 120 prisoners who were forced to move to the FRG. This demonstration was a great step to the peaceful revolution in the GDR.

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Public demonstrations at the Alexanderplatz

Public demonstrations at the Alexanderplatz: Public demonstrations at the Alexanderplatz in Berlin against the corruption of the election. Gorbatschow gives the people hope. View in timeline...

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Public enemy

Public enemy: Category of enemies created in the Soviet Union on political grounds, which was not precisely determined. Groups such as counter-revolutionaries, parasites, spies, saboteurs, kulaks, opponents of the Party and others were classified as public enemies by the party leadership and derived from the need to remove unsuitable people, rather than their real actions

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Pyrenees

Pyrenees: Range of mountains in Southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain

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R

Radio Free Europe

Radio Free Europe: The most important information channel was the Western media, as well as, initially, radio broadcasting, which found a large audience in Estonia. Estonian language programs Radio Free Europewere regularly jammed, but it was technically impossible to bar all Western radio stations.

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Rock marches

Rock marches:Unprecedented musical events which took place between 1987 and 1989

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Referendum

Referendum: It is a direct vote in which the voters are asked to accept or reject a particular proposal.

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Rest of the world

Rest of the world:criticism against the state debts the BRD had to take from the DDR and bad working morale; German reunification as a "role-model" for other countries, but not always accepted, e.g. North and South Korea.

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Rotating Presidency

Rotating Presidency:The Presidency of the Council of the European Union rotates among the member states of EU every six months.

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Railway bridge (Colera)

Railway bridge (Colera): During the war, the railway bridge in Colera became a geo-strategic point of great importance. In order to defend this bridge and the village, coastal artillery batteries were built (Puig Claper), together with air defences, machine gun nests in Colera and Garbet, and refuges and trenches.

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Rákosi Mátyás (the Hungarian PM) admitted his errors and resigned

Rákosi Mátyás (the Hungarian PM) admitted his errors and resigned: 1956 Fear controlled the population, which sowed the seed of revolt.View in timeline...

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Reactionary elements

Reactionary elements: a person who holds political viewpoints that favor a return to a previous state in a society View in timeline...

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Red Map

Red Map:Pál Teleki made this map before the Treaty of Trianon. It is an ethnographical map of Hungary.

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Round Table Talks

Round Table Talks: The Round Table Talks is the term used to describe the process of negotiations which took place from the 6th of February to the 5th of April 1989 between "Solidarity", which was led by Lech Wałęsa, and KC PZPR – the communist party. Although the negotiations took place at several locations, the starting and finishing location was the Presidential Palace in Warsaw (then Pałac Namiestnikowski). It was the event that started the fall of the Communist rule in Poland (and in other countries) as well as the start of the truly independent Poland. During the negotiations the Senate and the function of the President of the People's Republic of Poland were created.

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Repressions of the communist regime

Repressions of the communist regime: After 1944 the communist government in Poland began to victimize the society. Repressions were different, depending on the times when they were carried out .From 1944 to 1956 there were mass arrests and cruel investigations, frequently ending with a death sentence. Later on censorship was used as a form of repression as well as wiretapping or creating obstacles in getting a job. View in timeline...

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Repression of 'German collaborators' in 1944–1945

Repression of 'German collaborators' in 1944–1945: Even during WW II the Soviet security forces began preparations for punishing the population in the areas to be taken back from the German troops. A number of laws were passed for that purpose, and these laws also determined categories such as 'traitors of the homeland' and 'enemy assistants'. The latter were Soviet citizens (including people living in the territories occupied in 1940) who, under the orders of the German authorities, had been involved in providing the German army and its horses with food and the necessary equipment, and reconstructing industry, transport and agriculture, or who had 'actively cooperated' with the Germans in some other way. The Criminal Code contained punishments for all these activities, including for people who had 'helped' the 'traitors of the homeland'.

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Resettlements of Germans

Resettlements of Germans: Germany – over 13 milion people from different regions in Central Europe were forced to move away. The vast majority of them had to leave their homes by the end of World War II or just after it. The fear of the Red Army as well as orders made by the Nazis left about 7.5 million people with no other choice, than to flee from their homeland, which in most cases happened to be eastern and central Poland, eastern Prussia, western Pomerania, eastern Brandenburg and Silesia. Alone from Wroclaw 700.000 inhabitants had to leave. Displacement orders put by the USA, UK and Russia brought 3.2 million of Germans away from territories newly granted to Poland. Just after the war, the communist government of Poland took the Silesians through a verification process. As the result of that, those, who had German forefathers (about 300.000) were exiled. Still, those who were allowed to stay, were stimatized as germanized Slavs. From 1945 on people of ‚wrong' nationalities were taken in trains to labour camps. During the first post-war years, autochthonic Pomeranians (apart from slavian Kashubians) were displaced to Germany. Their homes were taken over by people from Ukraine. The same happened to Masurians.

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Ramanauskas Adolfas (Vanagas)

Ramanauskas Adolfas (Vanagas): One of the prominent leadrs of the Lithuanian partisans.

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Rose

Rose: Shows the dramatic fate of the native inhabitants of Masuria (former Prussia – part of Germany) who became second-class human beings for the new communist government, unworthy of participation in the construction of a new wonderful reality. Through the Polish Army officer's eyes we see the tragic battle for life and honor of the nation doomed by two nationalisms. It seems that in such tragic times, there is no place for love. Love, however, comes in and gives hope, but for how long..? It is not easy to live in post-war Poland. Repeated rapes, life full of terror, invigilation did not allow to live without fear. The brutal truth is shown. It is controversial but touching.

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Russification

Russification: A form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities give up (whether voluntarily or not) their culture and language in favor of the Russian one. The Russian language was termed as 'the language of friendship of nations', and was taught to Estonian children as early as in kindergarten, whereas teaching Estonian to non-Estonians was considered unnecessary. Cultural and educational policies were geared for Russification. Their real aim was to destroy the basis of Estonian national identity, the Estonian-language educational system offered from kindergarten to university.View in timeline...

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S

Sabaté, Quico

Sabaté, Quico: A Catalan anarchist involved in the resistance against the Nationalist regime of Francisco Franco

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Sant Ferran Fortress (Figueres)

Sant Ferran Fortress (Figueres): The fortress was the seat of the last meeting of the Republic Parliament held on 1st February, 1939. On 3rd February, the agreement of the cession of the works of art evacuated from and Valencia was signed. On 8th February shortly before of the pro-Franco army, the last republican military units dynamite several parts of the castle.

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Schengen-Area

Schengen-Area:It consists of 26 European countries that abolished passport or any border- control in-between their common borders.

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Sąjūdis

Sąjūdis:The political organization which led the struggle for Lithuanian independence in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

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Siniša Glavašević

Siniša Glavašević:Croatian reporter who was unlawfully executed by Serbian paramilitaries after the Battle of Vukovar. During the Croatian War of Independence, he was the chief editor of the Vukovar radio. During the Battle of Vukovar, Glavašević was regularly reporting from the besieged city. He is particularly remembered for a series of stories he had read to the listeners, that talked about basic human values. In 1997, his body was exhumed from a mass grave in a nearby farm in Ovčara. He was 31 years old. In 1992, Matica hrvatska printed Stories from Vukovar (Croatian: Priče iz Vukovara), a collection of stories by Glavašević. English translation of the collection was published in 2011.

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Soviet Union

Soviet Union:essential state of the reunification; most important decision-maker: Michail Gorbatschow 1990; Influence of his wife and relationship with Helmut Kohl relevant for agreement; full agreement and sovereignty for their political system.

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Stabilization and Association Agreement

Stabilization and Association Agreement:In talks with countries that have expressed a wish to join the European Union, the EU typically concludes Association Agreements in exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in that country. In exchange, the country may be offered tariff-free access to some or all EU markets (industrial goods, agricultural products, etc.), and financial or technical assistance

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Second circulation

Second circulation:Since 1977 independent and illegal publishing houses associated with the Communist opposition party have been funded . Independent publishing houses operated usually in university and enterprise environment, and were run by the social opposition groups. They were responsible for printing and colportage of various non-censored publications. The most significant are: NOWA (the first underground publishing house), Krąg, Przedświt, CDN, Oficyna Literacka. Independent publishing houses have never received wide range, apart from the People's Republic of Poland in the late 80s, because of the police oppressions, infiltration, and the control system of paper, paint and printing machines.

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Skylė

Skylė:A band formed in Vilnius in 1991 at a crucial turning point in the history of Lithuania during the fall of the Soviet Union.

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Socialist realism

Socialist realism is a style of realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in other socialist countries. Socialist realism is a teleologically-oriented style having as its purpose the furtherance of fulfilling the goals of socialism and communism. Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, a broader type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern. Unlike social realism, socialist realism often glorifies the roles of the meek and working class and the struggle for its emancipation. The most known socialist realism building in Poland is The Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw.

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Sonnenallee

Sonnenallee:A movie about the problems of teenagers in the GDR. Michael and his friends live in the 'Sonnenallee', a street between the FRG and the GDR. They listen to the music of the Rolling Stones. Director: Leander Haußmann. Published in 1999

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Sarajevo

Sarajevo: the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it was besieged for 1 425 days by the Army of Republika Srpska (from 5 April 1992 to 2 February 1996); 11 540 were killed View in timeline...

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SAO Krajina

SAO Krajina:The Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina or SAO Krajina was a self-proclaimed Serbian autonomous region (oblast) within modern-day Croatia (then Yugoslavia). The territory consisted of majority-Serbian municipalities of the Republic of Croatia that declared autonomy in August 1990.

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SANU

SANU: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts; they made the Memorandum about bad position of Serbs in Yugoslavia

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Satellite State

Satellite State: a political term for a country that is formally independent, but it is under heavy political and economic influence or control by another country

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Savka Dabčević-Kučar

Savka Dabčević-Kučar: a Croatian politician, the leading figure in the Croatian Spring, the first woman president of the League of Communist in a republic; she was deposed after the Karađorđevo meeting, and excluded from politics, science and from public life, prosecuted, called upon and criticized.

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Security Service

Security Service: Security Service (SB) was entrusted by the communist government to provide public order and safety in the People's Republic of Poland. In fact, SB was the secret police of the totalitarian system, it was confined to the protection of the communist regime by controlling all aspects of social life, breaking the rule of law and the fight against the opposition. View in timeline...

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SFRJ

SFRJ: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) was made up of six present-day states: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,Serbia,Macedonia, Montenegro, and Kosovo View in timeline...

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Show-trial

Show-trial: It is pre-planned and based on false evidence. In the communist countries it was widely used.

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Show trial

Show trial: a description of a public trial in which there is a strong connotation that the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendantView in timeline...

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Siberia

Siberia: is an extensive geographical region constituting almost all of North Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, Siberia was part of the Soviet Union (USSR) from its beginning, as of its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire since the 16th century.

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SKH

SKH: League of Communists of Croatia; was the Croatian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ); founded in 1937 as as Communist Party of Croatia (Komunistička partija Hrvatske,KPH); in 1952 renamed into SKH

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SKJ

SKJ: League of Communists of Yugoslavia; a major communist party (and actually the only one) in Yugoslavia; Josip Broz Tito was its president and the centre was in Beograd

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socialist in content national in form

socialist in content national in form: The slogan then established was that local cultures should be "socialist in content butnational in form." That is, these cultures should be transformed to conform into one General Culture and expressed in on language – russian language

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Slobodan Milošević

Slobodan Milošević: Serbian poltician and president from 1989 to 2000; he died in prison in 2006

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Solidarity

Solidarity: The Independent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity" is a Polish, nationwide trade union organization that emerged on 31 August 1980 at the Gdansk Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Walesa. It was the first non-communist-party controlled trade union in the communist block of countries. Solidarity reached 9.5 million members before its September 1981 Congress (up to 10 million) that constituted one third of the total working age population of Poland. In its clandestine years, the USA provided significant financial support for Solidarity, estimated to be as much as 50 million US dollars. In the 1980s, Solidarity was a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement, using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers' rights and social change. The government attempted to destroy the union during the period of martial law in the early 1980 and several years of political repression, but in the end it was forced to negotiate with the union. The Round Table Talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed and in December 1990 Walesa was elected President of Poland. Since then it has become a more traditional, liberal trade union. 30 years after emerging, the Solidarity's membership dropped to between just over 400,000 and 680,000.

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State Committee on the State of Emergency

State Committee on the State of Emergency: The State Committee on the State of Emergency (Russian: Государственный комитет по чрезвычайному положению, ГКЧП,Gosudarstvennyi Komitet po Chrezvechainomu Polozheniyu, GKChP), also known as "the gang of eight", was a group of eight high-level officials within the Soviet government, the Communist party and the KGB who attempted a coup against Mikhail Gorbachev on 18 August 1991. Within two days, by 20 August 1991, the attempted coup collapsed.

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Soviets

Soviets: was a name used for several Russian political organizations which was called the "Soviet of Ministers"; a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia; and the Supreme Soviet, the bicameral parliament of the Soviet Union.

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Soviet Occupation (17 of June 1940) and Annexion (6 of August 1940)

Soviet Occupation (17 of June 1940) and Annexion (6 of August 1940): While the German army was fighting successful battles in the Western Europe, Soviet leadership decided to fully incorporate the Baltic states. In June 1940, large Red Army troops were rallied to the Estonian-Russian border, and Estonian government was forced to give in to the Soviet Union's harsh ultimatum. With the help of the Red Army, new, Moscow-supporting government was formed, and "elections" were organized, where the red election coalition gained a landslide victory. On Juley 21, 1940, newly elected lower chamber of the Parliament (Riigivolikogu) declared Estonia a soviet republic and pledged the Estonian SSR to be accepted to the Soviet Union, and the formal and juridical fulfilment of this request on August 6, 1940, ended the process of the annexation of Estonia.

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Soviet people

Soviet people: the idea that on the territory of the USSR was forming new nation, a community for which the common language – the language of the "Soviet people" – was the Russian language, consistent with the role that Russian was playing for the fraternal nations and nationalities in the territory already. This new community was labeled a people (народ – narod), not a nation (нация – natsiya), but in that context the Russian word narod ("people") implied an ethnic community, not just a civic or political community. View in timeline...

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Soviet security forces

Soviet security forces: The general name of the Soviet Union secret service, In 1940, the territorial units of the NKVD were formed in the newly annexed Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The Committee for State Security (KGB, in Russian - Комитет государственной безопасности), established in 1954, operated until its liquidation in 1991. From the 1940s to the 1980s, the majority of repressions for anti-Soviet activities in Estonia were carried out by the Soviet state security bodies.

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Soviet Union annexes Estonia

Soviet Union annexes Estonia: The declaration of Estonia's wish to join the USSR was approved by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on August 6, 1940. The State Assembly proclaimed all land to be people's property while banks and heavy industry were nationalized. View in timeline...

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"Spring" ("Vesna")

Spring: May 22-23, 1948 It was planned to deport 12 134 families (48 thousand people) to Yakutia (later changed into Buryat-Mongolia Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) and Krasnoyarsk area. View in timline...

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Srebrenica

Srebrenica: a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina; refers to the July 1995 killing, during the Bosnian War, of more than 8,000 Bosniaks(Bosnian Muslims), mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by units of the of Army of Republika Srpska; 12,000 people are still considered missing View in timeline...

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Stalin

Stalin: was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the party's Central Committee in 1922. He subsequently managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin through expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He held this nominal post until abolishing it in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union after establishing the position in 1941.

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State criminals

State criminals: a person whose aim to act to break the state’s own criminal and public international law

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State Security Service

State Security Service: a new name for the UDBA since 1966; View in timeline...

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„Storm“

„Storm“: the last major battle of the Croatian War of Independence; decisive victory of the Croatian Army

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Students' protests in Warsaw

Students' protests in Warsaw: MARCH 1968 – WARSAW Poland in March 1968 had a political crisis connected with the major student and intellectual protest action against the existing communist government. At the end of January 1968 the performance of a classic play by Adam Mickiewicz "Dziady" written in 1832 was banned from being played at the Polish Theatre in Warsaw on the grounds that it contained russophobic and anti-socialist references. The play had only been performed 14 times, the last time in January 1968. As a result of this, a crowd of 1500 students protesting at Warsaw University on March the 8th was met with attacks by the riot police (ZOMO). Within four days the protests spread to other Polish academic centers all over Poland. Despite the fact that different communist militia forces kept attacking the students at the university halls, mass student strikes continued to take place in the next days and even a call for a general strike in Poland was issued from Warsaw on 13th March. However, the government cut off the possibility of any negotiation and further student protests, strikes and occupations of university halls were met with mass academic expulsion of thousands of participants. At least 2 725 people were arrested for participating. View in timeline...

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Suez Crisis

Suez Crisis: Egypt nationalizatied the Suez Canal, that's why France and Great Britain attacked Egypt but the USA and the Soviet Union helped Egypt.

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Summerwar

Summerwar: After the Estonian occupation and the beginning of Soviet repression in summer and autumn 1940, a large number of people went into hiding in the forests. The movement of the Forest Brothers became a mass movement in summer 1941. This was caused by intensifying Soviet repression, especially the mass deportation in June 1941, and the Red Army mobilisations in July and August 1941. As a rule, people hid in the forests near their homes. They occasionally went back home for food, carried out various jobs around the house and in the fields, and looked after the cattle. This was the life that was possible in summertime. View in timeline...

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Spanish Civil War

Spanish Civil War: Armed conflict between Republicans and the Nationalists, who were led by the General Francisco Franco. It took place from 1936 to 1939.

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Spanish Maquis

Spanish Maquis: guerrillas who hid in the mountains and fought against Franco from 1936 to 1960s

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Statement of USA

Statement of USA: US Under-Secretary of State Sumner Welles announced that the USA did not recognise the changes carried out in the Baltic countries by force. This was the beginning of the Western countries' politics of non-recognition. View in timeline...

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Swastika

Swastika: This is the nazi symbol.

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Synagogue

Synagogue: The church for the Jews.The jewish people met other jewish people here. They pray on their God and pro their freedom.

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T

Taiga

Taiga: also known as boreal forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.

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The Baltic Appeal

The Baltic Appeal : The Baltic Way or Baltic Chain was a peaceful political demonstration that occurred on August 23, 1989. Approximately two million people joined their hands to form a human chain spanning over 600 kilometres (370 mi) across the three Baltic states – Estonian SSR, Latvian SSR, and Lithuanian SSR, republics of the Soviet Union. It marked the 50th anniversary of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. View in timeline...

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The Baltic Chain

The Baltic Chain: The Baltic Way or Baltic Chain was a peaceful political demonstration that occurred on August 23, 1989. Approximately two million people joined their hands to form a human chain spanning over 600 kilometres (370 mi) across the three Baltic states – Estonian SSR, Latvian SSR, and Lithuanian SSR, republics of the Soviet Union. It marked the 50th anniversary of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. View in timeline...

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Treaty

Treaty:It is an agreement under internation law. It is entered into force by sovereign states and international organizations.

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Third pilgrimage of John Paul II to Poland

Third pilgrimage of John Paul II to Poland: The third pilgrimage of John Paul II to Poland took place in June 1987. During that pilgrimage the Pope visited 9 Polish cities, including places important for the nation's fight for freedom. Throughout the whole visit John Paul II gave many speeches showing his solidarity with the Polish people. At the meeting with young people in Westerplatte (Gdańsk), the symbolic place of the Polish fight against German invasion at the beginning of World War II, the Pope expressed his great belief in the youth. Showing his solidarity with the Polish nation, John Paul II paid tribute to Jerzy Popiełuszko, the priest murdered by the agents of the communist security service SB, and to the victims of World War II. In Gdańsk the Pope met with Lech Wałęsa and his family at a private meeting. During this pilgrimage, John Paul II showed his compatriots a lot of support by comforting, helping and giving advice.

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TV/ Movies

TV/ Movies:No western TV, only Deutscher Fernsehfunk - the people should only know what the government wanted. But they did it despite the prohibition - members of the FGY should destroy these antennas. Refusal of foreign movies, especially after the 11th plenum.

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The Catholic Church

The Catholic Church: also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with 1.2 billion members worldwide. The Vatican organized extensive humanitarian aid throughout the duration of the conflict.

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The Declaration on the continuity of Lithuanian Independence

The Declaration on the continuity of Lithuanian Independence: Meeting of partisans from all parts of Lithuania at the command post. On 16 February (Lithuanian Independence Day) participants signed a declaration stating that the ultimate aim of the partisans' campaign was the re-establishment of a Lithuanian parliamentary republic on the model of that which existed 1920-1926 View in timeline...

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The first deportation

The first deportation: about 17.6 thousand residents of Lithuania were deported to the Komi Republic, the Altai and Krasnoyarsk territory and the Novosibirsk oblast.View in timeline...

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The Great Escape

The Great Escape: In the summer and autumn of 1944 about 80, 000 people fled to the West from the Red Army, which was gradually invading the Estonian territory. About six to nine per cent perished en route. he people escaping to the West were of different kinds: refugees, soldiers serving in the German army, those recruited as labour force in the German rear, and others. The Great Escape mainly occurred across the sea, first to Finland and Sweden, later towards Germany. Their main reason for escaping was fear of Soviet persecution. Many hoped that the situation would normalise and they could soon return.

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The homeland war

The homeland war: a defensive war for liberation, independence and integrity of the Croatian state against the aggression of the Great Serbia's united forces View in timeline...

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The House of Terror

The House of Terror: having survived two terror regimes, it was felt that the time had come for Hungary to erect a memorial place to the victims and at the same time to present a picture of what life was like for Hungarians in those times

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The Hungarian Revolution

The Hungarian Revolution: The first unofficial demonstrations were held under the communist rule on 23rd October, 1956. View in timeline...

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The Joint Staff of Lithuania

The Joint Staff of Lithuania: Responsible for ensuring effective operational lead of operational capabilities of the Lithuanian Armed Forces (further referred to as operational capabilities) subordinate to it and effective conduct of military operations

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The June deportation 1941

The June deportation 1941: The June deportation is the term denoting the forceful deportation of about 10,000 people from Estonia to Russia on 14 June, 1941 by the Soviet regime. About photo: Islanders taken to Russia for lifelong forced settlement in cattle cars of the deportation train, 1941. This drawing was made already in 1941 on soft brownish paper. Every person depicted on this image was a familiar fellow-prisoner. This drawing survived the hard times and ended up in Estonia, folded four times and in tatters. And now, in 2001, this picture is reborn here. Helvi Koppel-Kohandi's original drawing is in her possession.

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The Narva Dictate

The Narva Dictate: Moscow announced, that the Red Army will began its entry on June 17, at 5 AM (4 AM according to Estonian time). Leaders of the army were to give details about the location of the troops, but when Johan Laidoner took a train to Narva in the morning of June 17, he met first troops already in Jõhvi. Meretskov demanded that the occupation army must be housed in all the larger towns and cities, and be allowed to set up on the western- and northern coast. In addition, all weapons that the civilians were carrying had to be collected in 48 hours, demand which meant that the Defence League, joining together more than 40.000 men, was disarmed. At 15:00 PM Laidoner and Meretsov signed the Narva Dictate.At the same time, 90,000 soldiers were marching into Estonia, Tallinn was occupied.

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The Octobrists

The Octobrists: The organization for children aged 7-9 years old. Every Little Octobrist wore a ruby-coloured five-pointed star badge with the portrait of Vladimir Lenin in his childhood. The symbol of the group was the little red flag.

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The Pioneers

The Pioneers: The Young Pioneer Organization of the Soviet Union, for children aged 10-14 years old.

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The Red Army

The Red Army: The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya;RKKA) started out as the Soviet Russia's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1922 and Red Cossacks Army of Ukrainian Republic, the official history of which begins from 22 December of 1917. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. The "Red Army" refers to the traditional colour of the communist movement. On 25 February 1946, the Red Army was renamed the Soviet Army(Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya).

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The Singing Revolution

The Singing Revolution: The poetic common name for patriotic mass meetings in Estonia in 1988-1991, where the common singing of patriotic songs was an important feature. The real Singing Revolution started in 1988, when performing patriotic songs at mass events became usual. This year can also be taken as the peak year of the Singing Revolution and its summer months have, due to people's political activity and patriotic enthusiasm, retrospectively been called a 'hot summer'. View in timelines...

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The White House

The White House: The headquarters of the Hungarian Secret Police were in the house that had been the 'House of Loyalty‘ earlier. Later it moved to the tower block popularly known as the 'White House'

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Tito, Josip Broz

Tito, Josip Broz: (1892 -1980); the Yugoslavian politician, statesman and a communist leader; the SFRJ leader for 35 years

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Transportation

Transportation: The nazi people collected a lot of jewish people and jews were taken to death camp by nazis.

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Tartu Peace Treaty

Tartu Peace Treaty:On 2 February 1988, Estonians marked the 68th anniversary of the Tartu Peace Treaty signed between the Republic of Estonia and Soviet Russia. The demonstration was met by special forces units bearing plastic shields and rubber clubs, and dogs. From then on, the government was more circumspect in using force. In Tallinn, interference and blocking tactics were used to break up the spontaneous rallies that were growing ever larger, but this did not prevent the people from commemorating Independence Day (February 24) and the anniversary of the March 1949 deportations.

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Tourist Center (Vilajuïga)

Tourist Center (Vilajuïga): During the Civil War, Vilajuïga gave refuge to more than a hundred refugees. Apart from the church, the rectory and private homes, the place which took in most refugees was the Gran Hotel Central where a camp was set up for 43 children from the Madrid area. This accommodation, organized by the Ministry of Justice, was maintained from October, 1936 to the end of 1938, when it was fitted out to house military staff from the Garriguella-Vilajuïga airfield.

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Tuđman, Franjo

Tuđman, Franjo: Croatian politician and president from 1992 until his death in 1999; first President of Croatia

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Tunnel 57

Tunnel 57: Wolfgang F. saved 57 people into the west although he was already there. He and some more students dug a tunnel, which was 145 meters long and 12 meters under the ground. Later the tunnel was called "tunnel 57".View in timeline...

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The Years of Stalinist Depression in Hungary

The Years of Stalinist Depression in Hungary: 1949-1953 There was a totalitarian, one-party system developed by Stalin. He drove his rivals into exile, prison or to death.View in timeline...

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U

UDBA

UDBA: "The State Security Administration"; the secret police organisation in Yugoslavia; formed in 1946, shut down in the 1990s after the breakup of Yugoslavia; its main task was to monitor and eavesdrop on the opponents of the regime, taking them to a political camp on the Goli otok; it often took extreme measures such as killing its opponents; no legal procedures have been carried out against the UDBA’s criminal agents in Croatia so farView in timeline...

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Umsiedlung

Umsiedlung: In late September 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union signed an agreement for the German citizens and people of German origin to resettle to Germany and its spheres of interest. The Soviet Union was not to prevent people who wished to leave, but arranging the resettlement had to proceed according to the agreement between Germany and the host country. Germany then prepared for resettlement and despatched ships to fetch the Germans.

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Underground youth organisations

Underground youth organisations: The secret youth organisations of the 1950s mainly emerged to protest the increasing compromises and adaptations to the Soviet system. The secret organisations of the time were characterised by strict discipline, constitutions, handwritten leaflets, oaths, and to some extent, the acquiring of weapons. View in timeline...

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Uprising in Poznan

Uprising in Poznan: JUNE 1956 – POZNAN The Poznan June was the first protest against the Soviet-imposed communist government that was established at the end of the 2nd World War in Poland. On June 28 in 1956, workers began demonstrations at Poznan Cegielski Factories demanding better conditions at work as well as better pay and protesting against a recent rise in taxes and higher work quotas. Over 100,000 people gathered at the Imperial Castle in Poznan where the communist city officials and the secret political police had their headquarters. However, a peaceful protest soon turned violent. Tanks, armoured cars, field guns and lorries full of militia troops surrounded the city and began to take detainees for often brutal interrogations which would leave 746 people detained until August. The regular fights between the armed protestants and the communist military forces lasted for two days on the streets of Poznan. In the end, the rebellion was brutally crushed, with estimated casualties between 57 and 100 dead and 500 to 600 wounded. View in timeline...

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Uprising of 17th June 1953

Uprising of 17th June 1953: This uprising was the biggest one in the GDR and the only one between 1953 and 1980. The protest happened in the first term of the year 1953 because of the planned rise of the job norm and the bad provision. More than one million workers demonstrated in over 700 towns (e.g. Berlin, Leipzig) againest the SED-government. Finally the Red Army and the Sowjet Military-Administration beat the demonstrators with violence, about 100 people died and over 10,000 got arrested. After this uprising the people in the GDR were to afraid of the government's power so they didn't try another uprising.

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USSR

USSR: the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a constitutionally communist state that existed between 1922 and 1991, ruled as a single-party state by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital. A union of 15 multiple subnational Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized.

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United Kingdom

United Kingdom:Prime minister Margaret Thatcher thought the reunification will attack the "balance of powers"; Germany will become a stronger country; with the recognition of the "Oder-Neiße-Grenze" and sacrifice of territorial claims, the United Kingdom agreed

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United States of America

United States of America:Agreed from the beginning; ex-president Ronald Reagan's quote to Gorbatschow about the Berlin-wall: "Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"; George Bush first west-ally supporter of the reunification; convinced with Helmut Kohl France and Great Britain

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V

Valle de los Caídos

Valle de los Caídos: The valley of the fallen. It is called in that way because it is a monument built to bury everyone who fell in the Spanish Civil War.

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Vaino Väljas

Vaino Väljas: He is a former Soviet politician. He was the Chairman of the 6th Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR from 18 April 1963 to 19 March 1967, first secretary of communist party of Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic from 16 June 1988 to April 1990 and chairman of the party from April 1990 to August 1991. Since Väljas was considered to have Estonian nationalist inclinations, he was removed from Estonia and appointed as the Soviet ambassador to Venezuela in 1980 and Nicaragua in 1986. As theEstonian independence movement gained momentum in 1988, the relatively liberal Väljas was recalled from Nicaragua and was appointed by Gorbachev as leader of the Estonian Communist Party.

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Vichy Regime

Vichy Regime: France during the regime of Marshal Philippe Pétain during the second World War

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Vila, Ramon

Vila, Ramon: a Catalan anarchist who joined the CNT and fought with the Republicans against the insurgents. When the war finished, he hid in the Pyrenees and continued carrying on actions to weak the regime. Finally, he was pursued and assassinated by the Guardia Civil.

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Vilmos Zsigmond

Vilmos Zsigmond:Hungarian-American cinematographer. In 2003 he was placed among the ten most influential cinematographer sin history.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Lenin:Russian communist revolutionary politician and political theorist

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Veselin Šljivančanin

Veselin Šljivančanin: former Serbian officer in the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) who participated in the Battle of Vukovar and was subsequently convicted on a war crimes indictment by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia for his role in the Vukovar massacre. His prison sentence was changed twice, from five to 17 to ten years.

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Vukovar

Vukovar: city in eastern Croatia. It has Croatia's biggest river port, located at the confluence of the Vuka River and the Danube. Vukovar was heavily damaged during the Croatian War of Independence. Approximately 2,000 self-organised defenders (the army of Croatia was still in an embryonic stage at that time) defended the city for 87 days against approximately 36,000 JNA troops supplemented with 110 vehicles and tanks and dozens of planes. The city suffered heavy damage during the siege and was eventually overrun. It is estimated that 2,000 defenders of Vukovar and civilians were killed, 800 went missing and 22,000 civilians were forced into exile. The damage to Vukovar during the siege has been called the worst in Europe since World War II, drawing comparisons with the World War II–era Stalingrad.

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Vytautas Landsbergis

Vytautas Landsbergis: Lithuanian conservative politician and Member of the European Parliament. He was the first head of state of Lithuania after its independence declaration from the Soviet Union, and served as the Head of the Lithuanian Parliament Seimas.

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Voice of America

Voice of America: Voice of America (VOA) is the official external broadcast institution of the United States federal government. From 1951-2004 VOA had every day estonian language programs twice per day.

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W

Waiting for the White Ship

Waiting for the White Ship: The white ship stood for the end of Soviet power, either by means of the intervention by Western countries, or by diplomatic pressure. Waiting for the white ship was a popular concept especially in the post-war decade, and the ruling regime had to work strenuously against it.

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Walter Ulbricht

Walter Ulbricht: German Communist leader and head of East Germany.He played a leading role in the merger of the KPD and the SPD in to the SED until 1989.

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War in Bosnia and Herzegovina

War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: was an international armed conflict between Serbia and Monte Negro, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina; it is also called Civil War or a war of agression on Bosnia and Herzegovina; it took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1 March 1992 when conflicts started in Bijeljina and 14 December 1995 when Operation Mistral (Bosnian and Croatian: Operacija Maestral named after the Mistral wind) happened View in timeline...

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Wilhelm Pieck

Wilhelm Pieck: German politician and a Communist. First President of the German Democratic Republic in 1949. He was among the founders of the National Committee for a Free Germany.

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Willy Brandt

Willy Brandt: Leader of SPD (1964.-1987.). Awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace

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Water tower in Vukovar

Water tower in Vukovar: The city's water tower, riddled with bullet holes, was retained by city planners to serve as a testimony to the events of the early 1990s.

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Workday

Workday: It was used in collective farms as a pay for all day's work in farm. In collective farms workers didn't get a money for job they had done.

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World War II

World War II: also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers - eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units from over 30 different countries.

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Y

"Youth Day"

"Youth Day":was celebrated throughout the former Yugoslavia on May 25. This was also a celebration of Josip Broz Tito's birthday. In the weeks preceding the date youth ran a relay around the country and on his birthday Tito was ceremonially presented with the baton. The baton, which had passed through all major cities, contained a symbolic birthday message, ostensibly from the youth of the whole country

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"Yugoslavia!" - song

"Yugoslavia!" - song:one of the most popular songs in former Yugoslavia, unofficial anthem. The lyrics of the song praise the unity and history of Yugoslavia. After the collapse of Yugoslavia the song has still remained in the circles of the Yugo-nostalgics and Titoists eg. on special occasions used to commemorate and glorify communism.

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Yalta

Yalta: The Yalta Conference took place on 4-11 February 1945 and was a meeting of the three Allied leaders, President Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain, and Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union. Some important arrangements were made then, which shaped the new borders of the Soviet Union, Poland and Germany in the post-war Europe. Poland lost a lot of its eastern territories for the Soviet Union, whereas Germany had to give away their western lands as well as a part of Eastern Prussia. In other words, Poland was to give away 173 000 square km, which made up 47% of their pre-war territory and gain 98 000 square km. This resulted in the resettlements of Poles and Germans on a huge scale – before the war over 7 million Germans had lived on the lands that later became a part of Poland and approximately 13 million Poles on the territories that used to belong to Poland, according to the data from 1939.

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Z

Ž

Žemaitis Jonas (Vytautas)

Žemaitis Jonas (Vytautas) was one of the leaders of armed resistance against the Soviet occupation in Lithuania and acknowledged as the Head of State of contemporary occupied Lithuania.

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OUR WAY TO FREEDOM